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Title: Low-Moisture Switchgrass Bulk-Format Logistics Costs Based on Engineering Data

Abstract

<italic>Abstract.</italic> Logistics costs that spanned harvest, transport, storage, preprocessing, and year-round delivery of 371,870 dMg year -1of milled, low-moisture switchgrass (SG) to a local biorefinery were determined for bulk-format versus round-bale systems. Separate spreadsheet analyses were conducted for three diesel fuel prices ($0.53 L -1, $0.92 L -1, and $1.32 L -1) because of the wide range of fuel prices during the project. A detailed analysis scenario identified a common harvest period, equipment annual use, other equipment uses, and protected SG storage on gravel pad, along with equipment performances based on previously published tests primarily for commercially available equipment. The bulk-format system used a depot equipped with stacker/reclaimer technology for storage, whereas the round-bale system used field-side bale stacks for storage, with both systems assuming 6% losses, primarily attributed to storage. Results indicated total costs for bulk-format versus round-bale systems of $54.63 per dry Mg (dMg -1), $60.41 dMg -1, and $66.21 dMg -1versus $54.59 dMg -1, $62.10 dMg -1, and $67.93 dMg -1corresponding with diesel fuel costs of $0.53 L -1, $0.92 L -1, and $1.32 L -1, respectively. The most significant bulk-format system total cost of $22.79 dMg -1was associated with a stacker/reclaimer, conveyance, and dust collection atmore » the depot, which was 42% of total costs at a diesel fuel cost of $0.53 L -1. For the round-bale system, bale chopping total costs was highest and represented an average of 27% of total costs, with costs ranging from $14.63 dMg -1to $19.08 dMg -1for diesel fuel input costs ranging from $0.53 L -1to $1.32 L -1, respectively. For comparison, the forage harvester provided harvesting and chopping in the bulk-format system at total costs ranging from $6.47 dMg -1to $8.80 dMg -1across the same range of diesel fuel input cost. The forage harvester provided an economic advantage in size reduction compared to tub grinding. Truck hauling for both the bulk-format and round-bale systems represented significant expenses at all selected fuel costs. In addition, the multiple times that round bales were handled represented accumulating costs that were sensitive to diesel fuel costs. Keywords: Bales, Bioenergy, Bulk format, Densification, Field chop, Logistics, Transportation.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Genera Energy, Inc., Vonore, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1541900
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0001034
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Transactions of the ASABE (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 61; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2151-0040
Publisher:
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Agriculture

Citation Formats

Womac, Alvin R., Groothuis, Mitch D., Tiller, Kelly, Jackson, Sam W., and Dye, Clay. Low-Moisture Switchgrass Bulk-Format Logistics Costs Based on Engineering Data. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.13031/trans.12631.
Womac, Alvin R., Groothuis, Mitch D., Tiller, Kelly, Jackson, Sam W., & Dye, Clay. Low-Moisture Switchgrass Bulk-Format Logistics Costs Based on Engineering Data. United States. doi:10.13031/trans.12631.
Womac, Alvin R., Groothuis, Mitch D., Tiller, Kelly, Jackson, Sam W., and Dye, Clay. Mon . "Low-Moisture Switchgrass Bulk-Format Logistics Costs Based on Engineering Data". United States. doi:10.13031/trans.12631.
@article{osti_1541900,
title = {Low-Moisture Switchgrass Bulk-Format Logistics Costs Based on Engineering Data},
author = {Womac, Alvin R. and Groothuis, Mitch D. and Tiller, Kelly and Jackson, Sam W. and Dye, Clay},
abstractNote = {<italic>Abstract.</italic> Logistics costs that spanned harvest, transport, storage, preprocessing, and year-round delivery of 371,870 dMg year-1of milled, low-moisture switchgrass (SG) to a local biorefinery were determined for bulk-format versus round-bale systems. Separate spreadsheet analyses were conducted for three diesel fuel prices ($0.53 L-1, $0.92 L-1, and $1.32 L-1) because of the wide range of fuel prices during the project. A detailed analysis scenario identified a common harvest period, equipment annual use, other equipment uses, and protected SG storage on gravel pad, along with equipment performances based on previously published tests primarily for commercially available equipment. The bulk-format system used a depot equipped with stacker/reclaimer technology for storage, whereas the round-bale system used field-side bale stacks for storage, with both systems assuming 6% losses, primarily attributed to storage. Results indicated total costs for bulk-format versus round-bale systems of $54.63 per dry Mg (dMg-1), $60.41 dMg-1, and $66.21 dMg-1versus $54.59 dMg-1, $62.10 dMg-1, and $67.93 dMg-1corresponding with diesel fuel costs of $0.53 L-1, $0.92 L-1, and $1.32 L-1, respectively. The most significant bulk-format system total cost of $22.79 dMg-1was associated with a stacker/reclaimer, conveyance, and dust collection at the depot, which was 42% of total costs at a diesel fuel cost of $0.53 L-1. For the round-bale system, bale chopping total costs was highest and represented an average of 27% of total costs, with costs ranging from $14.63 dMg-1to $19.08 dMg-1for diesel fuel input costs ranging from $0.53 L-1to $1.32 L-1, respectively. For comparison, the forage harvester provided harvesting and chopping in the bulk-format system at total costs ranging from $6.47 dMg-1to $8.80 dMg-1across the same range of diesel fuel input cost. The forage harvester provided an economic advantage in size reduction compared to tub grinding. Truck hauling for both the bulk-format and round-bale systems represented significant expenses at all selected fuel costs. In addition, the multiple times that round bales were handled represented accumulating costs that were sensitive to diesel fuel costs. Keywords: Bales, Bioenergy, Bulk format, Densification, Field chop, Logistics, Transportation.},
doi = {10.13031/trans.12631},
journal = {Transactions of the ASABE (Online)},
issn = {2151-0040},
number = 2,
volume = 61,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}