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Title: Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality

Abstract

Not provided.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1541257
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-04ER54742
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Physics

Citation Formats

Yoshida, Z., and Morrison, P. J. Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501.
Yoshida, Z., & Morrison, P. J. Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501.
Yoshida, Z., and Morrison, P. J. Fri . "Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501.
@article{osti_1541257,
title = {Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality},
author = {Yoshida, Z. and Morrison, P. J.},
abstractNote = {Not provided.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
issn = {0031-9007},
number = 24,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Self-organization processes in continuous media
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K.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Plasma Physics, Vol. 81, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022377815001269" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1017/S0022377815001269<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Transfer of Light Helicity to Nanostructures<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2013-04-01">April 2013</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Toyoda, Kohei; Takahashi, Fuyuto; Takizawa, Shun</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 14</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.176401" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Chiral Charge-Density Waves<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2010-10-01">October 2010</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Ishioka, J.; Liu, Y. H.; Shimatake, K.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 17</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.176401" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.176401<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (23)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <label for="reference-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="reference-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-name"><label for="reference-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-date"><label for="reference-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1423565-nexus-fermions-topological-symmorphic-crystalline-metals" itemprop="url">Nexus fermions in topological symmorphic crystalline metals</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Chang, Guoqing</span> ; <span class="author">Xu, Su-Yang</span> ; <span class="author">Huang, Shin-Ming</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Scientific Reports</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Topological metals and semimetals (TMs) have recently drawn significant interest. These materials give rise to condensed matter realizations of many important concepts in high-energy physics, leading to wide-ranging protected properties in transport and spectroscopic experiments. It has been well-established that the known TMs can be classified by the dimensionality of the topologically protected band degeneracies. While Weyl and Dirac semimetals feature zero-dimensional points, the band crossing of nodal-line semimetals forms a one-dimensional closed loop. In this paper, we identify a TM that goes beyond the above paradigms. It shows an exotic configuration of degeneracies without a well-defined dimensionality. Specifically, it<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> consists of 0D nexus with triple-degeneracy that interconnects 1D lines with double-degeneracy. We show that, because of the novel form of band crossing, the new TM cannot be described by the established results that characterize the topology of the Dirac and Weyl nodes. Moreover, triply-degenerate nodes realize emergent fermionic quasiparticles not present in relativistic quantum field theory. We present materials candidates. Thus, our results open the door for realizing new topological phenomena and fermions including transport anomalies and spectroscopic responses in metallic crystals with nontrivial topology beyond the Weyl/Dirac paradigm.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 45<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01523-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1423565" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1038/s41598-017-01523-8</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1423565" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1423565" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1547339-tornado-model-magnetised-plasma" itemprop="url">Tornado model for a magnetised plasma</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Onishchenko, O. G.</span> ; <span class="author">Fedun, V.</span> ; <span class="author">Smolyakov, Andrei</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">A novel analytical model of axially-symmetric magnetic vortices with both a twisted fluid flow and a magnetic field is introduced. The exact solution for the three-dimensional structure of the fluid velocity and the magnetic field is obtained within the framework of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations for an incompressible fluid in a gravitational field. A quasi-stationary localised vortex arises when the radial flow that tends to concentrate vorticity in a narrow column around the axis of symmetry is balanced by the vertical vortex advection in the axial direction. The explicit expressions for the velocity and magnetic field components are obtained. The<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> proposed analytic model may be used to parameterise the observed solar tornadoes and can provide a new indirect way for estimating magnetic twist from the observed azimuthal velocity profiles.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5023167" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1547339" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.5023167</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1547339" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1547339" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1523374-theory-self-organized-zonal-flow-fine-radial-structure-tokamak" itemprop="url">A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Zhang, Y. Z.</span> ; <span class="author">Liu, Z. Y.</span> ; <span class="author">Xie, T.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown here to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters;<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4995302" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1523374" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.4995302</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1523374" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1523374" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1544365-topological-hopf-chain-link-semimetal-states-application-co2mnga" itemprop="url">Topological Hopf and Chain Link Semimetal States and Their Application to <math> <mrow> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> Co </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> <mi> Mn </mi> <mtext> G </mtext> <mtext> a </mtext> </mrow> </math></a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Chang, Guoqing</span> ; <span class="author">Xu, Su-Yang</span> ; <span class="author">Zhou, Xiaoting</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Topological semimetals can be classified by the connectivity and dimensionality of the band crossings in momentum space. The band crossings of a Dirac, Weyl, or an unconventional fermion semimetal are zero-dimensional (0D) points, whereas the band crossings of a nodal-line semimetal are one-dimensional (1D) closed loops. Here we propose that the presence of perpendicular crystalline mirror planes can protect three-dimensional (3D) band crossings characterized by nontrivial links such as a Hopf link or a coupled chain, giving rise to a variety of new types of topological semimetals. We show that the nontrivial winding number protects topological surface states distinct from<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> those in previously known topological semimetals with a vanishing spin-orbit interaction. We also show that these nontrivial links can be engineered by tuning the mirror eigenvalues associated with the perpendicular mirror planes. Using first-principles band structure calculations, we predict the ferromagnetic full Heusler compound Co <sub>2</sub>MnGa as a candidate. Here, both Hopf link and chainlike bulk band crossings and unconventional topological surface states are identified.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.156401" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1544365" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.156401</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1544365" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1544365" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1523476-two-dimensional-kinetic-ballooning-theory-ion-temperature-gradient-mode-tokamak" itemprop="url">The two-dimensional kinetic ballooning theory for ion temperature gradient mode in tokamak</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Xie, T.</span> ; <span class="author">Zhang, Y. Z.</span> ; <span class="author">Mahajan, S. M.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The two-dimensional (2D) kinetic ballooning theory is developed for the ion temperature gradient mode in an up-down symmetric equilibrium (illustrated via concentric circular magnetic surfaces). The ballooning transform converts the basic 2D linear gyro-kinetic equation into two equations: (1) the lowest order equation (ballooning equation) is an integral equation essentially the same as that reported by Dong et al., [Phys. Fluids B 4, 1867 (1992)] but has an undetermined Floquet phase variable, (2) the higher order equation for the rapid phase envelope is an ordinary differential equation in the same form as the 2D ballooning theory in a fluid model<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> [Xie et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 042514 (2016)]. The system is numerically solved by an iterative approach to obtain the (phase independent) eigen-value. The new results are compared here to the two earlier theories. We find a strongly modified up-down asymmetric mode structure, and non-trivial modifications to the eigen-value.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 2<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5003652" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1523476" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.5003652</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1523476" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1523476" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="d-none d-sm-inline" style="color:#737373;">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none mb-1"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/css/ostigov.fonts.191107.1502.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/js/ostigov.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/ostigov.biblio.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- OSTI.GOV v.191107.1502 --> </html>