skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs


Not provided.

 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Material Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0005075; EE0007090
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Country of Publication:
United States
Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics; Materials Science; Physics

Citation Formats

Fleetham, Tyler, Li, Guijie, and Li, Jian. Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201601861.
Fleetham, Tyler, Li, Guijie, & Li, Jian. Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201601861.
Fleetham, Tyler, Li, Guijie, and Li, Jian. Fri . "Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201601861.
title = {Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs},
author = {Fleetham, Tyler and Li, Guijie and Li, Jian},
abstractNote = {Not provided.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201601861},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
issn = {0935-9648},
number = 5,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}

Works referenced in this record:

The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic
journal, April 2004

Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting
journal, July 2008

  • So, Franky; Kido, Junji; Burrows, Paul
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 33, Issue 7, p. 663-669
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs2008.137

47.1: Invited Paper : Color Tunable Phosphorescent White OLED Lighting Panel
journal, June 2014

25.4: Invited Paper : Development of Commercial Flexible AMOLEDs
journal, June 2014

Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices
journal, September 1998

  • Baldo, M. A.; O'Brien, D. F.; You, Y.
  • Nature, Vol. 395, Issue 6698, p. 151-154
  • DOI: 10.1038/25954

Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence
journal, July 1999

  • Baldo, M. A.; Lamansky, S.; Burrows, P. E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, Issue 1, p. 4-6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.124258

Small-molecular blue phosphorescent dyes for organic light-emitting devices
journal, January 2013

  • Ho, Cheuk-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung
  • New Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 37, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3nj00170a

Recent Progresses on Materials for Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices
journal, October 2010

  • Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Qu, Bo
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 8, p. 926-952
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003128

A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices
journal, June 2013

  • Xiang, Chaoyu; Koo, Wonhoe; So, Franky
  • Light: Science & Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/lsa.2013.30

White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency
journal, May 2009

  • Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor
  • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7244
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08003

Matrix Effects on the Triplet State of the OLED Emitter Ir(4,6-dFppy) 2 (pic) (FIrpic): Investigations by High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy
journal, March 2009

  • Rausch, Andreas F.; Thompson, Mark E.; Yersin, Hartmut
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 48, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic801250g

Extrafluorescent electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices
journal, April 2007

  • Segal, M.; Singh, M.; Rivoire, K.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1885

Chemical degradation mechanisms of highly efficient blue phosphorescent emitters used for organic light emitting diodes
journal, January 2013

Investigation of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode host and dopant stability
journal, July 2014

FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence
journal, January 2015

  • Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F. E.
  • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 44, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4DT02991G

Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence
journal, December 2012

  • Uoyama, Hiroki; Goushi, Kenichi; Shizu, Katsuyuki
  • Nature, Vol. 492, Issue 7428
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11687

Above 20% External Quantum Efficiency in Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Device Using Furodipyridine-Type Host Materials
journal, January 2014

  • Im, Yirang; Lee, Jun Yeob
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm403358h

Synthesis, Structure, and Characterization of Dinuclear Copper(I) Halide Complexes with P^N Ligands Featuring Exciting Photoluminescence Properties
journal, October 2012

  • Zink, Daniel M.; Bächle, Michael; Baumann, Thomas
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic300979c

Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials Towards the Breakthrough of Organoelectronics
journal, September 2014

Triplet Harvesting with 100% Efficiency by Way of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Charge Transfer OLED Emitters
journal, May 2013

  • Dias, Fernando B.; Bourdakos, Konstantinos N.; Jankus, Vygintas
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300753

Temperature Dependence of Blue Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes
journal, July 2009

  • Sajoto, Tissa; Djurovich, Peter I.; Tamayo, Arnold B.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja903317w

Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes
journal, March 2001

  • Lamansky, Sergey; Djurovich, Peter; Murphy, Drew
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 40, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic0008969

A New Class of Iridium Complexes Suitable for Stepwise Incorporation into Linear Assemblies: Synthesis, Electrochemistry, and Luminescence
journal, August 2008

  • Whittle, Victoria L.; Williams, J. A. Gareth
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 47, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic701788d

Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes
journal, June 2002

  • Brooks, Jason; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Lamansky, Sergey
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 41, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic0255508

Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorescent Pt(N C N)X Complexes
journal, December 2010

  • Wang, Zixing; Turner, Eric; Mahoney, Vanessa
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 49, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic100740e

Spatial Extensions of Excited States of Metal Complexes. Tunability by Chemical Variation
journal, December 1999

  • Yersin, Hartmut; Humbs, Werner
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 38, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic990582p

Low-lying electronic states of [Rh(bpy)3]3+, [Pt(bpy)2]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+. A comparative study based on highly resolved and time-resolved spectra
journal, March 1997

Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes with Luminescent Quantum Yields Approaching 100%
journal, June 2013

  • Turner, Eric; Bakken, Nathan; Li, Jian
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic302490c

Recent advances of the emitters for high performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes
journal, January 2015

  • Yang, Xiaolong; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 3, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TC02474E

Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs
journal, October 2011

Improving the Performance of Pt(II) Complexes for Blue Light Emission by Enhancing the Molecular Rigidity
journal, November 2011

  • Rausch, Andreas F.; Murphy, Lisa; Williams, J. A. Gareth
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 51, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic201664v

Charge and energy transfers in functional metallophosphors and metallopolyynes
journal, May 2013

Synthetic Control of Excited-State Properties in Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes Using Ancillary Ligands
journal, March 2005

  • Li, Jian; Djurovich, Peter I.; Alleyne, Bert D.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 44, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic048599h

Efficient Blue- and White-Emitting Electrophosphorescent Devices Based on Platinum(II) [1,3-Difluoro-4,6-di(2-pyridinyl)benzene] Chloride
journal, June 2008

  • Yang, Xiaohui; Wang, Zixing; Madakuni, Sijesh
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702940

Cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complexes of Pyrazole-Based, N C N-Coordinating, Terdentate Ligands: the Contrasting Influence of Pyrazolyl and Pyridyl Rings on Luminescence
journal, December 2008

  • Develay, Stéphanie; Blackburn, Octavia; Thompson, Amber L.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 47, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic8014157

Tetradentate Pt(II) Complexes with 6-Membered Chelate Rings: A New Route for Stable and Efficient Blue Organic Light Emitting Diodes
journal, May 2016

Light-emitting devices based on organometallic platinum complexes as emitters
journal, November 2011

  • Kalinowski, Jan; Fattori, Valeria; Cocchi, Massimo
  • Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Vol. 255, Issue 21-22
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.01.049

Color-variable highly efficient organic electrophosphorescent diodes manipulating molecular exciton and excimer emissions
journal, February 2009

  • Cocchi, Massimo; Kalinowski, Jan; Fattori, Valeria
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3086900

Mixing of molecular exciton and excimer phosphorescence to tune color and efficiency of organic LEDs
journal, March 2010

Blue-shifting the monomer and excimer phosphorescence of tridentate cyclometallated platinum(ii) complexes for optimal white-light OLEDs
journal, January 2012

  • Murphy, Lisa; Brulatti, Pierpaolo; Fattori, Valeria
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 48, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cc31330h

Fluorine cleavage of the light blue heteroleptic triplet emitter FIrpic
journal, July 2009

  • Sivasubramaniam, Varatharajan; Brodkorb, Florian; Hanning, Stephanie
  • Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Vol. 130, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jfluchem.2009.04.009

Efficient deep blue electrophosphorescent devices based on platinum(II) bis(n-methyl-imidazolyl)benzene chloride
journal, August 2012

Mechanoluminescent and efficient white OLEDs for Pt(ii) phosphors bearing spatially encumbered pyridinyl pyrazolate chelates
journal, January 2013

  • Huang, Li-Min; Tu, Guan-Min; Chi, Yun
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 1, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3tc31524j

Near-white and tunable electrophosphorescence from bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)-based organic light emitting diodes
journal, August 2009

High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in a phosphine oxide host
journal, December 2009

  • Bhansali, Unnat S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3268434

Blue and Near-UV Phosphorescence from Iridium Complexes with Cyclometalated Pyrazolyl or N -Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands
journal, October 2005

  • Sajoto, Tissa; Djurovich, Peter I.; Tamayo, Arnold
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 44, Issue 22, p. 7992-8003
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic051296i

Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency
journal, October 2015

  • Lee, Jaesang; Chen, Hsiao-Fan; Batagoda, Thilini
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 1, p. 92-98
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4446

N -Heterocyclic Carbenes: Versatile Second Cyclometalated Ligands for Neutral Iridium(III) Heteroleptic Complexes
journal, December 2014

  • Li, Tian-Yi; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Liang
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 54, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic501949h

Green-Blue Emitters: NHC-Based Cyclometalated [Pt(C^C*)(acac)] Complexes
journal, November 2010

  • Unger, Yvonne; Meyer, Dirk; Molt, Oliver
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 49, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201001316

Enlarging the π System of Phosphorescent (C^C*) Cyclometalated Platinum(II) NHC Complexes
journal, May 2014

  • Tronnier, Alexander; Pöthig, Alexander; Metz, Stefan
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 53, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic500971z

Heteroleptic platinum( ii ) NHC complexes with a C^C* cyclometalated ligand – synthesis, structure and photophysics
journal, January 2015

  • Tronnier, Alexander; Heinemeyer, Ute; Metz, Stefan
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 3, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TC02575J

Phosphorescent C C* Cyclometalated Pt II Dibenzofuranyl-NHC Complexes - An Auxiliary Ligand Study : Phosphorescent C
journal, December 2013

  • Tronnier, Alexander; Nischan, Nicole; Metz, Stefan
  • European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 2014, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201301398

Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescence from Triarylboron-Functionalized Platinum(II) Complexes of N -Heterocyclic Carbenes
journal, August 2012

  • Hudson, Zachary M.; Sun, Christina; Helander, Michael G.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja3048656

Synthesis, Air Stability, Photobleaching, and DFT Modeling of Blue Light Emitting Platinum CCC-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Pincer Complexes
journal, February 2012

  • Zhang, Xiaofei; Wright, Ashley M.; DeYonker, Nathan J.
  • Organometallics, Vol. 31, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/om200687w

Highly efficient white organic light-emitting device using a single emitter
journal, January 2012

Single-Doped White Organic Light-Emitting Device with an External Quantum Efficiency Over 20%
journal, March 2013

  • Fleetham, Tyler; Ecton, Jeremy; Wang, Zixing
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204602

Platinum CCC-NHC benzimidazolyl pincer complexes: synthesis, characterization, photostability, and theoretical investigation of a blue-green emitter
journal, January 2013

  • Huckaba, Aron J.; Cao, Bei; Hollis, T. Keith
  • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 42, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3dt50438g

Recent advances in white organic light-emitting diodes employing a single-emissive material
journal, January 2014

Norbornene-Based Copolymers Containing Platinum Complexes and Bis(carbazolyl)benzene Groups in Their Side-Chains
journal, September 2009

  • Feng, Ke; Zuniga, Carlos; Zhang, Ya-Dong
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 42, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma901280x

Highly Luminescent Tetradentate Bis-Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes: Design, Synthesis, Structure, Photophysics, and Electroluminescence Application
journal, June 2010

  • Vezzu, Dileep A. K.; Deaton, Joseph C.; Jones, James S.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 49, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic1002226

Design, Synthesis, and Applications of Highly Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes
journal, September 2015

  • Huo, Shouquan; Carroll, Jeffrey; Vezzu, Dileep A. K.
  • Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 4, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201500246

Efficient and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Employing a Single Emitter
journal, January 2014

Blue electrophosphorescent organoplatinum(ii) complexes with dianionic tetradentate bis(carbene) ligands
journal, January 2011

  • Li, Kai; Guan, Xiangguo; Ma, Chun-Wah
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 47, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1cc12943k

Blue-emitting Ir(iii) phosphors with 2-pyridyl triazolate chromophores and fabrication of sky blue- and white-emitting OLEDs
journal, January 2013

  • Chang, Chih-Hao; Ho, Chi-Lung; Chang, Yu-Shuo
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 1, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3tc00919j

Efficient Pt( ii ) emitters assembled from neutral bipyridine and dianionic bipyrazolate: designs, photophysical characterization and the fabrication of non-doped OLEDs
journal, January 2015

  • Hsu, Che-Wei; Zhao, Yongbiao; Yeh, Hsiu-Hsuan
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 3, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TC02261D

28.4: Invited Paper : Development of Tetradentate Pt Complexes for Efficient, Stable, and High Color Purity Blue OLEDs
journal, June 2015

  • Fleetham, Tyler; Li, Guijie; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang
  • SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 46, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/sdtp.10382

Paper No 5.1: Highly Efficient Blue-Green OLEDs From Tetradentate Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes: Invited Paper
journal, September 2013

  • Ecton, Jeremy; Fleetham, Tyler; Hang, Xaiochun
  • SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 44
  • DOI: 10.1002/sdtp.52

Highly Efficient Blue-Emitting Cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complexes by Judicious Molecular Design
journal, May 2013

  • Hang, Xiao-Chun; Fleetham, Tyler; Turner, Eric
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 52, Issue 26, p. 6753-6756
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201302541

100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films
journal, January 2005

  • Kawamura, Yuichiro; Goushi, Kenichi; Brooks, Jason
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1862777

A new ambipolar blue emitter for NTSC standard blue organic light-emitting device
journal, February 2009

Saturated deep blue organic electrophosphorescence using a fluorine-free emitter
journal, December 2005

  • Holmes, R. J.; Forrest, S. R.; Sajoto, T.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 87, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2143128

Ultrahigh Energy Gap Hosts in Deep Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices
journal, November 2004

  • Ren, Xiaofan; Li, Jian; Holmes, Russell J.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm049402m

Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies
journal, December 2012

  • Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Supran, Geoffrey J.; Bawendi, Moungi G.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2012.328

Highly Efficient and Stable Narrow-Band Phosphorescent Emitters for OLED Applications
journal, December 2014

  • Li, Guijie; Fleetham, Tyler; Turner, Eric
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400341

Efficient “Pure” Blue OLEDs Employing Tetradentate Pt Complexes with a Narrow Spectral Bandwidth
journal, September 2014

  • Fleetham, Tyler; Li, Guijie; Wen, Lele
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 41, p. 7116-7121
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401759

Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes
journal, January 2011

  • Tao, Youtian; Yang, Chuluo; Qin, Jingui
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 40, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c0cs00160k

Intrinsic luminance loss in phosphorescent small-molecule organic light emitting devices due to bimolecular annihilation reactions
journal, February 2008

  • Giebink, N. C.; D’Andrade, B. W.; Weaver, M. S.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2884530

Harvesting All Electrogenerated Excitons through Metal Assisted Delayed Fluorescent Materials
journal, March 2015

  • Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Fleetham, Tyler; Turner, Eric
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401772

Strongly Phosphorescent Palladium(II) Complexes of Tetradentate Ligands with Mixed Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Donor Atoms: Photophysics, Photochemistry, and Applications
journal, September 2013

  • Chow, Pui Keong; Ma, Chensheng; To, Wai-Pong
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 52, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201305590

Formation of triplet excimers and dimers in amorphous organic thin films and light emitting devices
journal, January 2003

Bi-molecular emissive excited states in platinum (II) complexes for high-performance organic light-emitting diodes
journal, December 2010

Optimising the luminescence of platinum(II) complexes and their application in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs)☆
journal, December 2008

  • Garethwilliams, J.; Develay, S.; Rochester, D.
  • Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Vol. 252, Issue 23-24
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.03.014

Excimer-Based White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Nearly 100 % Internal Quantum Efficiency
journal, January 2007

Tetradentate Platinum Complexes for Efficient and Stable Excimer-Based White OLEDs
journal, July 2014

  • Fleetham, Tyler; Huang, Liang; Li, Jian
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401244

Intermolecular Interaction and a Concentration-Quenching Mechanism of Phosphorescent Ir(III) Complexes in a Solid Film
journal, January 2006

Robust phosphorescent platinum(ii) complexes with tetradentate O∧N∧C∧N ligands: high efficiency OLEDs with excellent efficiency stability
journal, January 2013

  • Kui, Steven C. F.; Chow, Pui Keong; Cheng, Gang
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 49, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cc37862k

Robust Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Complexes Containing Tetradentate O^N^C^N Ligands: Excimeric Excited State and Application in Organic White-Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, December 2012

  • C. F. Kui, Steven; Chow, Pui Keong; Tong, Glenna So Ming
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201203687

Chemical Degradation in Organic Light-Emitting Devices: Mechanisms and Implications for the Design of New Materials
journal, March 2013

  • Schmidbauer, Susanna; Hohenleutner, Andreas; König, Burkhard
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205022

Efficiency Roll-Off in Blue Emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Carbazole Host Materials
journal, January 2016

  • Xiang, Chaoyu; Fu, Xiangyu; Wei, Wei
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201504357

High operational stability of electrophosphorescent devices
journal, July 2002

  • Kwong, Raymond C.; Nugent, Matthew R.; Michalski, Lech
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1489503

Highly Efficient and Stable Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Platinum Complexes
journal, August 2012

  • Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Shimizu, Takahisa; Hanashima, Hiromu
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202167

Photophysical Properties and OLED Applications of Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Schiff Base Complexes
journal, January 2010

  • Che, Chi-Ming; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Lai, Siu-Wai
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.200902183

Efficient Red Electroluminescent Devices with Sterically Hindered Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Schiff Base Complexes and Iridium Complex Codopant
journal, August 2014

  • Zhou, Liang; Kwong, Chun-Lam; Kwok, Chi-Chung
  • Chemistry - An Asian Journal, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/asia.201402618

Efficient and stable red organic light emitting devices from a tetradentate cyclometalated platinum complex
journal, August 2014

Efficient Red-Emitting Platinum Complex with Long Operational Stability
journal, July 2015

  • Fleetham, Tyler; Li, Guijie; Li, Jian
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 30
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b01596

Molecular orientation in small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes
journal, January 2011

  • Yokoyama, Daisuke
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1jm13417e

Understanding and predicting the orientation of heteroleptic phosphors in organic light-emitting materials
journal, October 2015

  • Jurow, Matthew J.; Mayr, Christian; Schmidt, Tobias D.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4428

Control of Molecular Dye Orientation in Organic Luminescent Films by the Glass Transition Temperature of the Host Material
journal, February 2015

Crystal Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Perfectly Oriented Non-Doped Pt-Based Emitting Layer
journal, February 2016

  • Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Liao, Jia-Ling; Lee, Si Woo
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504451