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Title: Imaging Individual Barium Atoms in Solid Xenon for Barium Tagging in nEXO

Abstract

The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes the fundamental properties of neutrinos, including whether or not the neutrino and antineutrino are distinct. Double beta detectors are large and expensive, so background reduction is essential for extracting the highest sensitivity. The identification, or “tagging”, of the 136Ba daughter atom from double beta decay of 136Xe provides a technique for eliminating backgrounds in the nEXO neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The tagging scheme studied in this work utilizes a cryogenic probe to trap the barium atom in solid xenon, where the barium atom is tagged via fluorescence imaging in the solid xenon matrix. Here we demonstrate imaging and counting of individual atoms of barium in solid xenon by scanning a focused laser across a solid xenon matrix deposited on a sapphire window. When the laser sits on an individual atom, the fluorescence persists for ~30 s before dropping abruptly to the background level, a clear confirmation of one-atom imaging. No barium fluorescence persists following evaporation of a barium deposit to a limit of =0.16%. This is the first time that single atoms have been imaged in solid noble element. It establishes the basic principle of a barium tagging technique for nEXO.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14] more »;  [15];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [12];  [20];  [21];  [9];  [12];  [3];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [4];  [11];  [23];  [21];  [22];  [25];  [14];  [26];  [23];  [27];  [28];  [21];  [29];  [12];  [22];  [25];  [20];  [3];  [22];  [26];  [30]; ORCiD logo [6];  [31];  [32];  [31];  [33];  [24];  [31];  [3];  [22];  [34];  [16];  [4];  [29];  [3];  [22];  [25];  [16];  [35];  [25];  [11];  [36];  [22];  [27];  [37];  [3];  [26];  [38];  [11];  [31];  [39];  [40];  [24];  [28];  [34];  [35];  [12];  [33];  [41];  [39];  [23]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6];  [33];  [6];  [12];  [42];  [29];  [12];  [19];  [20];  [20];  [20];  [20];  [25];  [21];  [25];  [39];  [12]; ORCiD logo [6];  [43];  [31];  [44];  [22];  [45];  [33];  [12];  [46];  [32];  [34];  [35];  [47];  [24];  [6];  [20];  [12];  [3];  [33];  [4];  [48];  [31];  [19];  [3];  [22];  [34];  [47];  [21];  [31];  [22];  [34];  [37];  [27];  [26];  [49];  [34];  [19];  [50];  [31] « less
  1. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  2. Colorado State University
  3. Carleton University
  4. Indiana University-Bloomington
  5. Friedrich-Alexander-University
  6. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  7. Carleton Univeristy, Ontairo Canada
  8. Duke University
  9. University of Illinois
  10. Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics named by A.I. Alikhanov of National
  11. University of South Dakota
  12. Universite de Sherbrooke
  13. Princeton University
  14. Other
  15. TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  16. Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
  17. Institute of High nergy Physics, Beijing, China
  18. High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  19. Chinese Academy of Sciences
  20. Brookhaven National Laboratory
  21. Laurentian University of Sudbury
  22. Stanford University
  23. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
  24. McGill University
  25. TRIUMF
  26. Drexel University
  27. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  28. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  29. University of Massachusetts at Amherst
  30. LLNL
  31. Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg
  32. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  33. University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
  34. Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  35. Stony Brook University
  36. IBS Center for Underground Physics in Korea
  37. Yale University
  38. Lanzhou University
  39. SLAC National Accelerator Lab
  40. California Institute of Technology
  41. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  42. University of Alabama in Huntsville
  43. Lawrence Livermore National Lab
  44. Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  45. SLAC
  46. Institute for Theoretical and Experimental PHysics, Moscow, Russia
  47. Institute of High Energy Physics
  48. University of Bem
  49. Institute for Theoretical adn Experimental Physics
  50. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1532353
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-143139
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 569; Journal Issue: 7755
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Chambers, C, Walton, T, Fairbank, D, Craycraft, A, Yahne, D, Todd, J, Iverson, A, Fairbank, W, Alamre, A, Albert, J B., Anton, G, Arnquist, Isaac J., Badhrees, I, Barbeau, P S., Beck, D, Belov, V, Bhatta, T, Bourque, F, Brodsky, J, Brown, E, Brunner, T, Burenkov, A, Cao, G F., Cao, Liang, Cen, W R., Charlebois, S A., Chiu, M, Cleveland, B, Coon, M, Cote, M, Cree, W, Dalmasson, J, Daniels, T, Darroch, L, Daugherty, S J., Daughhetee, J, Delaquis, S, Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A, Devoe, R, Dilling, Jens, Ding, Y Y., Dolinski, M J., Dragone, A, Echevers, J, Fabris, L, Farine, J, Feyzbakhsh, S, Fontaine, R, Fudenberg, D, Gallina, G, Giacomini, G, Gornea, R, Gratta, G, Hansen, E V., Heffner, Mike, Hoppe, Eric W., Hoessl, J, House, A, Hufschmidt, P, Hughes, M, Ito, Y, Jamil, A, Jessiman, C, Jewell, M J., Jiang, X S., Karelin, A, Kaufman, L J., Kodroff, D, Koffas, T, Kravitz, S, Krücken, R, Kuchenkov, A, Kumar, K S., Lan, Y, Larson, A, Leonard, D S., Li, G, Li, S, Li, Z, Licciardi, C, Lin, Y H., Lv, Peng, Maclellan, R, Michel, T, Mong, B, Moore, D C., Murray, K, Newby, Robert J., Ning, Z, Njoya, O, Nolet, F, Nusair, Omar, Odgers, K, Odian, A, Oriunno, M, Orrell, John L., Ortega, Gabriel SU, Ostrovskiy, I, Overman, Cory T., Parent, S, Piepke, A, Pocar, A, Pratte, J-F, Qiu, Dongru, Radeka, V, Raguzin, E, Rao, T, Rescia, S, Retiere, F, Robinson, A, Rossignol, T, Rowson, P C., Roy, N, Saldanha, Richard N., Sangiorgio, Samuele, Schmidt, S, Schneider, J, Schubert, A, Skarpaas, K, Soma, A K., St-Hilaire, G, Stekhanov, V, Stiegler, T, Sun, X L., Tarka, M, Tolba, T, Totev, T I., Tsang, Hei Man, Tsang, T, Vachon, F, Veenstra, B, Veeraraghavan, V, Visser, G, Vuilleumier, J, Wagenpfeil, M, Wang, Q, Watkins, J, Weber, M, Wei, W, Wen, L J., Wichoski, U, Wrede, G, Wu, S X., Wu, W H., Xia, Q, Yang, L, Yen, Y R., Zeldovich, O Y., Zhang, X, Zhao, Jiali, Zhou, Yuquan, and Ziegler, T. Imaging Individual Barium Atoms in Solid Xenon for Barium Tagging in nEXO. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1169-4.
Chambers, C, Walton, T, Fairbank, D, Craycraft, A, Yahne, D, Todd, J, Iverson, A, Fairbank, W, Alamre, A, Albert, J B., Anton, G, Arnquist, Isaac J., Badhrees, I, Barbeau, P S., Beck, D, Belov, V, Bhatta, T, Bourque, F, Brodsky, J, Brown, E, Brunner, T, Burenkov, A, Cao, G F., Cao, Liang, Cen, W R., Charlebois, S A., Chiu, M, Cleveland, B, Coon, M, Cote, M, Cree, W, Dalmasson, J, Daniels, T, Darroch, L, Daugherty, S J., Daughhetee, J, Delaquis, S, Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A, Devoe, R, Dilling, Jens, Ding, Y Y., Dolinski, M J., Dragone, A, Echevers, J, Fabris, L, Farine, J, Feyzbakhsh, S, Fontaine, R, Fudenberg, D, Gallina, G, Giacomini, G, Gornea, R, Gratta, G, Hansen, E V., Heffner, Mike, Hoppe, Eric W., Hoessl, J, House, A, Hufschmidt, P, Hughes, M, Ito, Y, Jamil, A, Jessiman, C, Jewell, M J., Jiang, X S., Karelin, A, Kaufman, L J., Kodroff, D, Koffas, T, Kravitz, S, Krücken, R, Kuchenkov, A, Kumar, K S., Lan, Y, Larson, A, Leonard, D S., Li, G, Li, S, Li, Z, Licciardi, C, Lin, Y H., Lv, Peng, Maclellan, R, Michel, T, Mong, B, Moore, D C., Murray, K, Newby, Robert J., Ning, Z, Njoya, O, Nolet, F, Nusair, Omar, Odgers, K, Odian, A, Oriunno, M, Orrell, John L., Ortega, Gabriel SU, Ostrovskiy, I, Overman, Cory T., Parent, S, Piepke, A, Pocar, A, Pratte, J-F, Qiu, Dongru, Radeka, V, Raguzin, E, Rao, T, Rescia, S, Retiere, F, Robinson, A, Rossignol, T, Rowson, P C., Roy, N, Saldanha, Richard N., Sangiorgio, Samuele, Schmidt, S, Schneider, J, Schubert, A, Skarpaas, K, Soma, A K., St-Hilaire, G, Stekhanov, V, Stiegler, T, Sun, X L., Tarka, M, Tolba, T, Totev, T I., Tsang, Hei Man, Tsang, T, Vachon, F, Veenstra, B, Veeraraghavan, V, Visser, G, Vuilleumier, J, Wagenpfeil, M, Wang, Q, Watkins, J, Weber, M, Wei, W, Wen, L J., Wichoski, U, Wrede, G, Wu, S X., Wu, W H., Xia, Q, Yang, L, Yen, Y R., Zeldovich, O Y., Zhang, X, Zhao, Jiali, Zhou, Yuquan, & Ziegler, T. Imaging Individual Barium Atoms in Solid Xenon for Barium Tagging in nEXO. United States. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1169-4.
Chambers, C, Walton, T, Fairbank, D, Craycraft, A, Yahne, D, Todd, J, Iverson, A, Fairbank, W, Alamre, A, Albert, J B., Anton, G, Arnquist, Isaac J., Badhrees, I, Barbeau, P S., Beck, D, Belov, V, Bhatta, T, Bourque, F, Brodsky, J, Brown, E, Brunner, T, Burenkov, A, Cao, G F., Cao, Liang, Cen, W R., Charlebois, S A., Chiu, M, Cleveland, B, Coon, M, Cote, M, Cree, W, Dalmasson, J, Daniels, T, Darroch, L, Daugherty, S J., Daughhetee, J, Delaquis, S, Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A, Devoe, R, Dilling, Jens, Ding, Y Y., Dolinski, M J., Dragone, A, Echevers, J, Fabris, L, Farine, J, Feyzbakhsh, S, Fontaine, R, Fudenberg, D, Gallina, G, Giacomini, G, Gornea, R, Gratta, G, Hansen, E V., Heffner, Mike, Hoppe, Eric W., Hoessl, J, House, A, Hufschmidt, P, Hughes, M, Ito, Y, Jamil, A, Jessiman, C, Jewell, M J., Jiang, X S., Karelin, A, Kaufman, L J., Kodroff, D, Koffas, T, Kravitz, S, Krücken, R, Kuchenkov, A, Kumar, K S., Lan, Y, Larson, A, Leonard, D S., Li, G, Li, S, Li, Z, Licciardi, C, Lin, Y H., Lv, Peng, Maclellan, R, Michel, T, Mong, B, Moore, D C., Murray, K, Newby, Robert J., Ning, Z, Njoya, O, Nolet, F, Nusair, Omar, Odgers, K, Odian, A, Oriunno, M, Orrell, John L., Ortega, Gabriel SU, Ostrovskiy, I, Overman, Cory T., Parent, S, Piepke, A, Pocar, A, Pratte, J-F, Qiu, Dongru, Radeka, V, Raguzin, E, Rao, T, Rescia, S, Retiere, F, Robinson, A, Rossignol, T, Rowson, P C., Roy, N, Saldanha, Richard N., Sangiorgio, Samuele, Schmidt, S, Schneider, J, Schubert, A, Skarpaas, K, Soma, A K., St-Hilaire, G, Stekhanov, V, Stiegler, T, Sun, X L., Tarka, M, Tolba, T, Totev, T I., Tsang, Hei Man, Tsang, T, Vachon, F, Veenstra, B, Veeraraghavan, V, Visser, G, Vuilleumier, J, Wagenpfeil, M, Wang, Q, Watkins, J, Weber, M, Wei, W, Wen, L J., Wichoski, U, Wrede, G, Wu, S X., Wu, W H., Xia, Q, Yang, L, Yen, Y R., Zeldovich, O Y., Zhang, X, Zhao, Jiali, Zhou, Yuquan, and Ziegler, T. Thu . "Imaging Individual Barium Atoms in Solid Xenon for Barium Tagging in nEXO". United States. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1169-4.
@article{osti_1532353,
title = {Imaging Individual Barium Atoms in Solid Xenon for Barium Tagging in nEXO},
author = {Chambers, C and Walton, T and Fairbank, D and Craycraft, A and Yahne, D and Todd, J and Iverson, A and Fairbank, W and Alamre, A and Albert, J B. and Anton, G and Arnquist, Isaac J. and Badhrees, I and Barbeau, P S. and Beck, D and Belov, V and Bhatta, T and Bourque, F and Brodsky, J and Brown, E and Brunner, T and Burenkov, A and Cao, G F. and Cao, Liang and Cen, W R. and Charlebois, S A. and Chiu, M and Cleveland, B and Coon, M and Cote, M and Cree, W and Dalmasson, J and Daniels, T and Darroch, L and Daugherty, S J. and Daughhetee, J and Delaquis, S and Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A and Devoe, R and Dilling, Jens and Ding, Y Y. and Dolinski, M J. and Dragone, A and Echevers, J and Fabris, L and Farine, J and Feyzbakhsh, S and Fontaine, R and Fudenberg, D and Gallina, G and Giacomini, G and Gornea, R and Gratta, G and Hansen, E V. and Heffner, Mike and Hoppe, Eric W. and Hoessl, J and House, A and Hufschmidt, P and Hughes, M and Ito, Y and Jamil, A and Jessiman, C and Jewell, M J. and Jiang, X S. and Karelin, A and Kaufman, L J. and Kodroff, D and Koffas, T and Kravitz, S and Krücken, R and Kuchenkov, A and Kumar, K S. and Lan, Y and Larson, A and Leonard, D S. and Li, G and Li, S and Li, Z and Licciardi, C and Lin, Y H. and Lv, Peng and Maclellan, R and Michel, T and Mong, B and Moore, D C. and Murray, K and Newby, Robert J. and Ning, Z and Njoya, O and Nolet, F and Nusair, Omar and Odgers, K and Odian, A and Oriunno, M and Orrell, John L. and Ortega, Gabriel SU and Ostrovskiy, I and Overman, Cory T. and Parent, S and Piepke, A and Pocar, A and Pratte, J-F and Qiu, Dongru and Radeka, V and Raguzin, E and Rao, T and Rescia, S and Retiere, F and Robinson, A and Rossignol, T and Rowson, P C. and Roy, N and Saldanha, Richard N. and Sangiorgio, Samuele and Schmidt, S and Schneider, J and Schubert, A and Skarpaas, K and Soma, A K. and St-Hilaire, G and Stekhanov, V and Stiegler, T and Sun, X L. and Tarka, M and Tolba, T and Totev, T I. and Tsang, Hei Man and Tsang, T and Vachon, F and Veenstra, B and Veeraraghavan, V and Visser, G and Vuilleumier, J and Wagenpfeil, M and Wang, Q and Watkins, J and Weber, M and Wei, W and Wen, L J. and Wichoski, U and Wrede, G and Wu, S X. and Wu, W H. and Xia, Q and Yang, L and Yen, Y R. and Zeldovich, O Y. and Zhang, X and Zhao, Jiali and Zhou, Yuquan and Ziegler, T},
abstractNote = {The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes the fundamental properties of neutrinos, including whether or not the neutrino and antineutrino are distinct. Double beta detectors are large and expensive, so background reduction is essential for extracting the highest sensitivity. The identification, or “tagging”, of the 136Ba daughter atom from double beta decay of 136Xe provides a technique for eliminating backgrounds in the nEXO neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The tagging scheme studied in this work utilizes a cryogenic probe to trap the barium atom in solid xenon, where the barium atom is tagged via fluorescence imaging in the solid xenon matrix. Here we demonstrate imaging and counting of individual atoms of barium in solid xenon by scanning a focused laser across a solid xenon matrix deposited on a sapphire window. When the laser sits on an individual atom, the fluorescence persists for ~30 s before dropping abruptly to the background level, a clear confirmation of one-atom imaging. No barium fluorescence persists following evaporation of a barium deposit to a limit of =0.16%. This is the first time that single atoms have been imaged in solid noble element. It establishes the basic principle of a barium tagging technique for nEXO.},
doi = {10.1038/s41586-019-1169-4},
journal = {Nature},
number = 7755,
volume = 569,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}