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Title: AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Release-to-Birth Ratio Data Analysis

Abstract

A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) low enriched fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independently controlled and monitored capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. AGR configuration and irradiation conditions are based on prismatic HTGR technology distinguished primarily by the use of helium coolant, a low-power-density ceramic core capable of withstanding very high temperatures, and TRISO coated particle fuel. Thus, these tests provide valuable irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of fission product isotopes (i.e., krypton and xenon) is calculated from release rates in the sweep gas flow measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission powermore » in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel kernel, particle coating layers, and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow, especially in the event of particle coating failures that occurred during AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 irradiations. The major factors that govern gaseous radioactive decay, diffusion, and release processes are found to be material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. For each of all AGR capsules, ABAQUS-based three-dimensional finite-element thermal models are created to predict daily averages of fuel compact temperatures for the entire irradiation period, which are used in establishing the R/B correlation with temperature and decay constant. This correlation can be used by reactor designers to estimate fission gas release from postulated failed fuel particles in HTGR cores, which is the key safety factor for fuel performance assessment.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
US DOE NE
OSTI Identifier:
1529906
Report Number(s):
INL/EXT-14-32970-Rev001
DOE Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 - NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; AGR; Release to Birth Ratio; VHTR; TDO; High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR); tristructural isotropic (TRISO)

Citation Formats

Pham, Binh T., Einerson, Jeffrey J., Scates, Dawn M., Maki, John T., and Petti, David A. AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Release-to-Birth Ratio Data Analysis. United States: N. p., 2019. Web.
Pham, Binh T., Einerson, Jeffrey J., Scates, Dawn M., Maki, John T., & Petti, David A. AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Release-to-Birth Ratio Data Analysis. United States.
Pham, Binh T., Einerson, Jeffrey J., Scates, Dawn M., Maki, John T., and Petti, David A. Mon . "AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Release-to-Birth Ratio Data Analysis". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529906.
@article{osti_1529906,
title = {AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Release-to-Birth Ratio Data Analysis},
author = {Pham, Binh T. and Einerson, Jeffrey J. and Scates, Dawn M. and Maki, John T. and Petti, David A.},
abstractNote = {A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) low enriched fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independently controlled and monitored capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. AGR configuration and irradiation conditions are based on prismatic HTGR technology distinguished primarily by the use of helium coolant, a low-power-density ceramic core capable of withstanding very high temperatures, and TRISO coated particle fuel. Thus, these tests provide valuable irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of fission product isotopes (i.e., krypton and xenon) is calculated from release rates in the sweep gas flow measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel kernel, particle coating layers, and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow, especially in the event of particle coating failures that occurred during AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 irradiations. The major factors that govern gaseous radioactive decay, diffusion, and release processes are found to be material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. For each of all AGR capsules, ABAQUS-based three-dimensional finite-element thermal models are created to predict daily averages of fuel compact temperatures for the entire irradiation period, which are used in establishing the R/B correlation with temperature and decay constant. This correlation can be used by reactor designers to estimate fission gas release from postulated failed fuel particles in HTGR cores, which is the key safety factor for fuel performance assessment.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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