skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Mechanisms of adhesion degradation at the photovoltiac module's cell metallization-encapsulant interface

Abstract

Adhesion measurements and chemical characterization of the encapsulant/silver metallization interface of a photovoltaic (PV) module through temperature, humidity, and voltage bias exposures were conducted. Results demonstrate two independent degradation mechanisms: (a) with voltage bias, the ionic conduction of Na + ions through the encapsulant results in the formation of sodium silicate at the silver metallization surface, thereby weakening that interface and (b) with moisture ingress, dissociation of the silane bonding to silver in the silver oxide similarly weakens this interface resulting in significantly lower debond energies.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Applied Energy Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1528832
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1490900; OSTI ID: 1494066
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-72105
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 30309; ECCS‐1542152; AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; degradation; encapsulation; metallization; photovoltaic module; reliability; screen printing

Citation Formats

Bosco, Nick, Moffitt, Stephanie, and Schelhas, Laura T. Mechanisms of adhesion degradation at the photovoltiac module's cell metallization-encapsulant interface. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/pip.3106.
Bosco, Nick, Moffitt, Stephanie, & Schelhas, Laura T. Mechanisms of adhesion degradation at the photovoltiac module's cell metallization-encapsulant interface. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3106
Bosco, Nick, Moffitt, Stephanie, and Schelhas, Laura T. Wed . "Mechanisms of adhesion degradation at the photovoltiac module's cell metallization-encapsulant interface". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3106. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1528832.
@article{osti_1528832,
title = {Mechanisms of adhesion degradation at the photovoltiac module's cell metallization-encapsulant interface},
author = {Bosco, Nick and Moffitt, Stephanie and Schelhas, Laura T.},
abstractNote = {Adhesion measurements and chemical characterization of the encapsulant/silver metallization interface of a photovoltaic (PV) module through temperature, humidity, and voltage bias exposures were conducted. Results demonstrate two independent degradation mechanisms: (a) with voltage bias, the ionic conduction of Na+ ions through the encapsulant results in the formation of sodium silicate at the silver metallization surface, thereby weakening that interface and (b) with moisture ingress, dissociation of the silane bonding to silver in the silver oxide similarly weakens this interface resulting in significantly lower debond energies.},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3106},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1528832}, journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
issn = {1062-7995},
number = 4,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The effect of encapsulant delamination on electrical performance of PV module
conference, June 2011


Microscopic Degradation Mechanisms in Silicon Photovoltaic Module under Long-Term Environmental Exposure
journal, October 2012


Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization on Photovoltaic Cells
journal, November 2017


Defining Threshold Values of Encapsulant and Backsheet Adhesion for PV Module Reliability
journal, November 2017


In-Situ Monitoring of Moisture Ingress in PV Modules Using Digital Humidity Sensors
journal, September 2016


Evaluation of performance parameters of PV modules deployed outdoors
journal, April 2005


XPS core level spectra and Auger parameters for some silver compounds
journal, June 1991


Environmental Influence on Module Delamination Rate
journal, March 2019


Auger and photoelectron line energy relationships in aluminum–oxygen and silicon–oxygen compounds
journal, November 1982


Assessing the causes of encapsulant delamination in PV modules
conference, June 2016


Development and first results of the width-tapered beam method for adhesion testing of photovoltaic material systems
conference, June 2016


Electrochemical mechanisms of leakage-current-enhanced delamination and corrosion in Si photovoltaic modules
journal, December 2018


Evaluation of PV module field performance
conference, June 2015

  • Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.
  • 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
  • https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356132