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Title: On the Efficiency $$\eta$$ and the Homogeneity of TiN Kinetic Inductance Detectors Produced through Atomic Layer Deposition

Abstract

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) belong to non-equilibrium superconducting devices. It is a new promising device due to high quantum efficiency, low theoretical noise limit, multiplex frequency domain, photon-number-resolving, and energy resolving. In the case of MKIDs, a change in the kinetic inductance is produced by the breaking of Cooper pairs, modifying the electrodynamic response of the superconductor. The production process of an MKID consists of depositing a superconducting thin film on an insulating substrate and applying standard lithographic patterning techniques to produce a resonator structure. When an MKID is produced via sputtering, film nonuniformity is observed, producing instability, low yield, frequency collisions, and low energy resolution. We exploring film uniformity in films produced with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and through ALD archive high values in the energy resolution. The uniformity of ALD is evaluated via measurement of the critical temperature of 4 MKIDs. Two MKIDs belong to the first fabrication process and the other two to another. The results obtained are: ΔTc/max(σT1,σT2) is 0.45 for A1-B1 and 0.21 for A2-B2. The difference in the Tc for MKIDs of the same wafer is around 5.1 mK and from different wafers, the maximum difference is 66 mk with a minimum ofmore » 48 mK. However, with the high uniformity archived, we obtained a poor response of the MKIDs when a photon is absorbed. As a consequence of the low response, we examined in the literature about the process of photon absorption. In this evaluation, we were focusing on the down-conversion efficiency as a possible cause for the degraded energy resolution. In this process, one part of the initial energy of the photon is lost, transferred to the creation of quasiparticles and phonons. The phonons that do not possess enough energy to break a Cooper pair are lost from the system. This loss in energy is accounted for by the eff iciency η which has a constant value reported as 0.57 (! from simulation). Due to the efficiency had been reported always as constant. We proceed to evaluate its value through a new method. The process consists of measuring the gain of the system via the photon transfer curve and thermal calibration. The efficiency obtained with this new method is of 0.008 which has a lower value in comparison with the simulation. The methods to obtain the critical temperature, as well as the new method to evaluate the efficiency of an MKID will be shown in this work.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Guanajuato U.
  2. Fermilab
  3. Unlisted, BR
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1527385
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-POSTER-19-018-PPD
1739727
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Conference
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Hernandez, Israel, Estrada, Juan, and Makler, Martin. On the Efficiency $\eta$ and the Homogeneity of TiN Kinetic Inductance Detectors Produced through Atomic Layer Deposition. United States: N. p., 2019. Web.
Hernandez, Israel, Estrada, Juan, & Makler, Martin. On the Efficiency $\eta$ and the Homogeneity of TiN Kinetic Inductance Detectors Produced through Atomic Layer Deposition. United States.
Hernandez, Israel, Estrada, Juan, and Makler, Martin. 2019. "On the Efficiency $\eta$ and the Homogeneity of TiN Kinetic Inductance Detectors Produced through Atomic Layer Deposition". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1527385.
@article{osti_1527385,
title = {On the Efficiency $\eta$ and the Homogeneity of TiN Kinetic Inductance Detectors Produced through Atomic Layer Deposition},
author = {Hernandez, Israel and Estrada, Juan and Makler, Martin},
abstractNote = {Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) belong to non-equilibrium superconducting devices. It is a new promising device due to high quantum efficiency, low theoretical noise limit, multiplex frequency domain, photon-number-resolving, and energy resolving. In the case of MKIDs, a change in the kinetic inductance is produced by the breaking of Cooper pairs, modifying the electrodynamic response of the superconductor. The production process of an MKID consists of depositing a superconducting thin film on an insulating substrate and applying standard lithographic patterning techniques to produce a resonator structure. When an MKID is produced via sputtering, film nonuniformity is observed, producing instability, low yield, frequency collisions, and low energy resolution. We exploring film uniformity in films produced with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and through ALD archive high values in the energy resolution. The uniformity of ALD is evaluated via measurement of the critical temperature of 4 MKIDs. Two MKIDs belong to the first fabrication process and the other two to another. The results obtained are: ΔTc/max(σT1,σT2) is 0.45 for A1-B1 and 0.21 for A2-B2. The difference in the Tc for MKIDs of the same wafer is around 5.1 mK and from different wafers, the maximum difference is 66 mk with a minimum of 48 mK. However, with the high uniformity archived, we obtained a poor response of the MKIDs when a photon is absorbed. As a consequence of the low response, we examined in the literature about the process of photon absorption. In this evaluation, we were focusing on the down-conversion efficiency as a possible cause for the degraded energy resolution. In this process, one part of the initial energy of the photon is lost, transferred to the creation of quasiparticles and phonons. The phonons that do not possess enough energy to break a Cooper pair are lost from the system. This loss in energy is accounted for by the eff iciency η which has a constant value reported as 0.57 (! from simulation). Due to the efficiency had been reported always as constant. We proceed to evaluate its value through a new method. The process consists of measuring the gain of the system via the photon transfer curve and thermal calibration. The efficiency obtained with this new method is of 0.008 which has a lower value in comparison with the simulation. The methods to obtain the critical temperature, as well as the new method to evaluate the efficiency of an MKID will be shown in this work.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1527385}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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