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Title: Completed coarse-grained model for Pu hydriding that has quantum accuracy (Progress Summary)

Abstract

Our team has developed a highly computationally efficient coarse-grained model for PuH 2 formation, based on high-level quantum mechanical calculations. Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical approach that can be highly accurate for modeling condensed phases, including reactive materials that are subject to the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. DFT calculations, though, are extremely computationally intensive, and are generally limited to exceedingly small system sizes and time scales. This is particularly true for f-electron solids such as plutonium, where the high computational effort due to electron correlations and minimizing to specific electronic spin-states (e.g., anti-ferromagnetic vs. ferromagnetic) limits standard calculations to systems of tens of atoms and precludes the determination of time-dependent properties (e.g., chemical kinetic data). In this regard, we have created a simplified Pu + H 2/PuH 2 equilibrium model based on a small number of interaction energies determined from DFT calculations. We have determined that Pu-H bond energetics in the bulk are largely defined by nearest-neighbor interactions, only. In other words, a hydrogen atom in a d-Pu tetrahedral interstitial site will only experience perturbations to its H-Pu bonded interactions when there is an additional hydrogen ion in a directly adjacent adsorption site. Thismore » is due to the strong electronic screening from the Pu atoms, which essentially limits the spatial extent of how hydrogen ions interact with each other within the Pu lattice. As a result, we are able to pre-tabulate all essential Pu-H interaction energies and model PuH 2 formation via a Monte Carlo simulation approach. This allows us to greatly expand the spatial and time scales of our calculations while maintaining most of the accuracy of quantum methods. Our model can thus be extended to system sizes if 100,000 atoms or greater and can be used to model hydride equilibrium processes, all of which are computationally cost prohibitive with any standard quantum code. We have used our approach to compute a two-dimensional free energy heat map and temperature dependence at sub-atmospheric pressures for PuH 2 formation. Our results compare well to the limited available experimental data, in particular for the enthalpy of formation (DH). Our goal is to extend these results to compute nucleation parameters such as the critical nucleus size and nucleation growth rates for continuum models.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1527288
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-778385
972390
DOE Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Goldman, Nir, and Mullen, Ryan. Completed coarse-grained model for Pu hydriding that has quantum accuracy (Progress Summary). United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1527288.
Goldman, Nir, & Mullen, Ryan. Completed coarse-grained model for Pu hydriding that has quantum accuracy (Progress Summary). United States. doi:10.2172/1527288.
Goldman, Nir, and Mullen, Ryan. Mon . "Completed coarse-grained model for Pu hydriding that has quantum accuracy (Progress Summary)". United States. doi:10.2172/1527288. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1527288.
@article{osti_1527288,
title = {Completed coarse-grained model for Pu hydriding that has quantum accuracy (Progress Summary)},
author = {Goldman, Nir and Mullen, Ryan},
abstractNote = {Our team has developed a highly computationally efficient coarse-grained model for PuH2 formation, based on high-level quantum mechanical calculations. Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical approach that can be highly accurate for modeling condensed phases, including reactive materials that are subject to the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. DFT calculations, though, are extremely computationally intensive, and are generally limited to exceedingly small system sizes and time scales. This is particularly true for f-electron solids such as plutonium, where the high computational effort due to electron correlations and minimizing to specific electronic spin-states (e.g., anti-ferromagnetic vs. ferromagnetic) limits standard calculations to systems of tens of atoms and precludes the determination of time-dependent properties (e.g., chemical kinetic data). In this regard, we have created a simplified Pu + H2/PuH2 equilibrium model based on a small number of interaction energies determined from DFT calculations. We have determined that Pu-H bond energetics in the bulk are largely defined by nearest-neighbor interactions, only. In other words, a hydrogen atom in a d-Pu tetrahedral interstitial site will only experience perturbations to its H-Pu bonded interactions when there is an additional hydrogen ion in a directly adjacent adsorption site. This is due to the strong electronic screening from the Pu atoms, which essentially limits the spatial extent of how hydrogen ions interact with each other within the Pu lattice. As a result, we are able to pre-tabulate all essential Pu-H interaction energies and model PuH2 formation via a Monte Carlo simulation approach. This allows us to greatly expand the spatial and time scales of our calculations while maintaining most of the accuracy of quantum methods. Our model can thus be extended to system sizes if 100,000 atoms or greater and can be used to model hydride equilibrium processes, all of which are computationally cost prohibitive with any standard quantum code. We have used our approach to compute a two-dimensional free energy heat map and temperature dependence at sub-atmospheric pressures for PuH2 formation. Our results compare well to the limited available experimental data, in particular for the enthalpy of formation (DH). Our goal is to extend these results to compute nucleation parameters such as the critical nucleus size and nucleation growth rates for continuum models.},
doi = {10.2172/1527288},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}