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Title: Supernova PTF 12glz: A Possible Shock Breakout Driven through an Aspherical Wind

Abstract

We present visible-light and ultraviolet (UV) observations of the supernova PTF 12glz. The SN was discovered and monitored in the near-UV and R bands as part of a joint GALEX and Palomar Transient Factory campaign. It is among the most energetic SNe IIn observed to date (≈1051 erg). If the radiated energy mainly came from the thermalization of the shock kinetic energy, we show that PTF 12glz was surrounded by ~1 M ⊙ of circumstellar material (CSM) prior to its explosive death. PTF 12glz shows a puzzling peculiarity: at early times, while the freely expanding ejecta are presumably masked by the optically thick CSM, the radius of the blackbody that best fits the observations grows at ≈7000 km s –1. Such a velocity is characteristic of fast moving ejecta rather than optically thick CSM. This phase of radial expansion takes place before any spectroscopic signature of expanding ejecta appears in the spectrum and while both the spectroscopic data and the bolometric luminosity seem to indicate that the CSM is optically thick. We propose a geometrical solution to this puzzle, involving an aspherical structure of the CSM around PTF 12glz. By modeling radiative diffusion through a slab of CSM, we showmore » that an aspherical geometry of the CSM can result in a growing effective radius. Furthermore, this simple model also allows us to recover the decreasing blackbody temperature of PTF 12glz. SLAB-Diffusion, the code we wrote to model the radiative diffusion of photons through a slab of CSM and evaluate the observed radius and temperature, is made available online.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [4];  [8]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4];  [8];  [4];  [8] more »;  [4]; ORCiD logo [9];  [8];  [1] « less
  1. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  2. The Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)
  3. Desy Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany)
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  5. Technion Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)
  6. Univ. of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)
  7. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  8. Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)
  9. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1526581
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 872; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; circumstellar matter; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (PTF12glz); ultraviolet: stars

Citation Formats

Soumagnac, Maayane T., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-yam, Avishay, Waxman, Eli, Ginzburg, Sivan, Strotjohann, Nora Linn, Schulze, Steve, Barlow, Tom A., Behar, Ehud, Chelouche, Doron, Fremling, Christoffer, Ganot, Noam, Gezari, Suvi, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Kaspi, Shai, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Laher, Russ R., Maoz, Dan, Martin, Christopher D., Nakar, Ehud, Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Poznanski, Dovi, and Yaron, Ofer. Supernova PTF 12glz: A Possible Shock Breakout Driven through an Aspherical Wind. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aafe84.
Soumagnac, Maayane T., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-yam, Avishay, Waxman, Eli, Ginzburg, Sivan, Strotjohann, Nora Linn, Schulze, Steve, Barlow, Tom A., Behar, Ehud, Chelouche, Doron, Fremling, Christoffer, Ganot, Noam, Gezari, Suvi, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Kaspi, Shai, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Laher, Russ R., Maoz, Dan, Martin, Christopher D., Nakar, Ehud, Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Poznanski, Dovi, & Yaron, Ofer. Supernova PTF 12glz: A Possible Shock Breakout Driven through an Aspherical Wind. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aafe84.
Soumagnac, Maayane T., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-yam, Avishay, Waxman, Eli, Ginzburg, Sivan, Strotjohann, Nora Linn, Schulze, Steve, Barlow, Tom A., Behar, Ehud, Chelouche, Doron, Fremling, Christoffer, Ganot, Noam, Gezari, Suvi, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Kaspi, Shai, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Laher, Russ R., Maoz, Dan, Martin, Christopher D., Nakar, Ehud, Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Poznanski, Dovi, and Yaron, Ofer. Tue . "Supernova PTF 12glz: A Possible Shock Breakout Driven through an Aspherical Wind". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aafe84.
@article{osti_1526581,
title = {Supernova PTF 12glz: A Possible Shock Breakout Driven through an Aspherical Wind},
author = {Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Ofek, Eran O. and Gal-yam, Avishay and Waxman, Eli and Ginzburg, Sivan and Strotjohann, Nora Linn and Schulze, Steve and Barlow, Tom A. and Behar, Ehud and Chelouche, Doron and Fremling, Christoffer and Ganot, Noam and Gezari, Suvi and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kaspi, Shai and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Laher, Russ R. and Maoz, Dan and Martin, Christopher D. and Nakar, Ehud and Neill, James D. and Nugent, Peter E. and Poznanski, Dovi and Yaron, Ofer},
abstractNote = {We present visible-light and ultraviolet (UV) observations of the supernova PTF 12glz. The SN was discovered and monitored in the near-UV and R bands as part of a joint GALEX and Palomar Transient Factory campaign. It is among the most energetic SNe IIn observed to date (≈1051 erg). If the radiated energy mainly came from the thermalization of the shock kinetic energy, we show that PTF 12glz was surrounded by ~1 M ⊙ of circumstellar material (CSM) prior to its explosive death. PTF 12glz shows a puzzling peculiarity: at early times, while the freely expanding ejecta are presumably masked by the optically thick CSM, the radius of the blackbody that best fits the observations grows at ≈7000 km s–1. Such a velocity is characteristic of fast moving ejecta rather than optically thick CSM. This phase of radial expansion takes place before any spectroscopic signature of expanding ejecta appears in the spectrum and while both the spectroscopic data and the bolometric luminosity seem to indicate that the CSM is optically thick. We propose a geometrical solution to this puzzle, involving an aspherical structure of the CSM around PTF 12glz. By modeling radiative diffusion through a slab of CSM, we show that an aspherical geometry of the CSM can result in a growing effective radius. Furthermore, this simple model also allows us to recover the decreasing blackbody temperature of PTF 12glz. SLAB-Diffusion, the code we wrote to model the radiative diffusion of photons through a slab of CSM and evaluate the observed radius and temperature, is made available online.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aafe84},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 2,
volume = 872,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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Emission from circumstellar interaction in normal Type II supernovae
journal, January 1994

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Radiation Dynamics, Envelope Ejection, and Supernova Light Curves
journal, April 1977

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Interaction-Powered Supernovae: Rise-Time Versus Peak-Luminosity Correlation and the Shock-Breakout Velocity
journal, June 2014


SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc: core-collapse Type IIn supernovae arising from blue supergiants
journal, December 2013

  • Smith, Nathan; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Prieto, Jose L.
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The Ninth data Release of the Sloan Digital sky Survey: First Spectroscopic data from the Sdss-Iii Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
journal, November 2012

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