skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain electromagnetics: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain EM

Abstract

& Engineers. As motivation for considering new electromagnetic techniques for hydraulic fracture monitoring, we develop a simple financial model for the net present value offered by geophysical characterization to reduce the error in stimulated reservoir volume calculations. Additionally, this model shows that even a 5% improvement in stimulated reservoir volume for a 1 billion barrel (bbl) field results in over 1 billion U.S. dollars (US$) in net present value over 24 years for US$100/bbl. oil and US$0.5 billion for US$50/bbl. oil. The application of conductivity upscaling, often used in electromagnetic modeling to reduce mesh size and thus simulation runtimes, is shown to be inaccurate for the high electrical contrasts needed to represent steel-cased wells in the earth. Fine-scale finite-difference modeling with 12.22-mm cells to capture the steel casing and fractures shows that the steel casing provides a direct current pathway to a created fracture that significantly enhances the response compared with neglecting the steel casing. We consider conductively enhanced proppant, such as coke-breeze-coated sand, and a highly saline brine solution to produce electrically conductive fractures. For a relatively small frac job at a depth of 3 km, involving 5,000 bbl. of slurry and a source midpoint to receiver separation ofmore » 50 m, the models show that the conductively enhanced proppant produces a 15% increase in the electric field strength (in-line with the transmitter) in a 10-Ωm background. In a 100-Ωm background, the response due to the proppant increases to 213%. Replacing the conductive proppant by brine with a concentration of 100,000-ppm NaCl, the field strength is increased by 23% in the 100-Ωm background and by 2.3% in the 10-Ωm background. Finally, all but the 100,000-ppm NaCl brine in a 10-Ωm background produce calculated fracture-induced electric field increases that are significantly above 2%, a value that has been demonstrated to be observable in field measurements. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1526490
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Prospecting
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 63; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-8025
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Hoversten, G. Michael, Commer, Michael, Haber, Eldad, and Schwarzbach, Christoph. Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain electromagnetics: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain EM. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12300.
Hoversten, G. Michael, Commer, Michael, Haber, Eldad, & Schwarzbach, Christoph. Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain electromagnetics: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain EM. United States. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12300.
Hoversten, G. Michael, Commer, Michael, Haber, Eldad, and Schwarzbach, Christoph. Thu . "Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain electromagnetics: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain EM". United States. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12300. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1526490.
@article{osti_1526490,
title = {Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain electromagnetics: Hydro-frac monitoring using ground time-domain EM},
author = {Hoversten, G. Michael and Commer, Michael and Haber, Eldad and Schwarzbach, Christoph},
abstractNote = {& Engineers. As motivation for considering new electromagnetic techniques for hydraulic fracture monitoring, we develop a simple financial model for the net present value offered by geophysical characterization to reduce the error in stimulated reservoir volume calculations. Additionally, this model shows that even a 5% improvement in stimulated reservoir volume for a 1 billion barrel (bbl) field results in over 1 billion U.S. dollars (US$) in net present value over 24 years for US$100/bbl. oil and US$0.5 billion for US$50/bbl. oil. The application of conductivity upscaling, often used in electromagnetic modeling to reduce mesh size and thus simulation runtimes, is shown to be inaccurate for the high electrical contrasts needed to represent steel-cased wells in the earth. Fine-scale finite-difference modeling with 12.22-mm cells to capture the steel casing and fractures shows that the steel casing provides a direct current pathway to a created fracture that significantly enhances the response compared with neglecting the steel casing. We consider conductively enhanced proppant, such as coke-breeze-coated sand, and a highly saline brine solution to produce electrically conductive fractures. For a relatively small frac job at a depth of 3 km, involving 5,000 bbl. of slurry and a source midpoint to receiver separation of 50 m, the models show that the conductively enhanced proppant produces a 15% increase in the electric field strength (in-line with the transmitter) in a 10-Ωm background. In a 100-Ωm background, the response due to the proppant increases to 213%. Replacing the conductive proppant by brine with a concentration of 100,000-ppm NaCl, the field strength is increased by 23% in the 100-Ωm background and by 2.3% in the 10-Ωm background. Finally, all but the 100,000-ppm NaCl brine in a 10-Ωm background produce calculated fracture-induced electric field increases that are significantly above 2%, a value that has been demonstrated to be observable in field measurements. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists},
doi = {10.1111/1365-2478.12300},
journal = {Geophysical Prospecting},
issn = {0016-8025},
number = 6,
volume = 63,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 11 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Parameters for financial model.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A parallel finite‐difference approach for 3D transient electromagnetic modeling with galvanic sources
journal, September 2004

  • Commer, Michael; Newman, Gregory
  • GEOPHYSICS, Vol. 69, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1190/1.1801936

Transient-electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain earth modeling over steel infrastructure
journal, March 2015

  • Commer, Michael; Hoversten, G. Michael; Um, Evan Schankee
  • GEOPHYSICS, Vol. 80, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1190/geo2014-0324.1

The use of Vertical line Sources in Electrical Prospecting for Hydrocarbon*
journal, February 1985


Modelling electrical conductivity for earth media with macroscopic fluid-filled fractures
journal, December 2012


Sensitivity analysis for the appraisal of hydrofractures in horizontal wells with borehole resistivity measurements
journal, July 2013


1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing
journal, July 2009

  • Yang, Wei; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Hou, Junsheng
  • GEOPHYSICS, Vol. 74, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1190/1.3131382