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Title: Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling

Abstract

Earth System Models (ESMs) are essential tools for understanding and predicting global change, but they cannot explicitly resolve hillslope-scale terrain structures that have been long recognized by hydrologists as the fundamental organizers of water, energy, and biogeochemical stores and fluxes. Here, we bring together hydrologists, Critical Zone scientists and ESM developers, to explore how hillslope structures may modulate ESM grid-level water, energy and biogeochemical fluxes. In contrast to the traditional one-dimensional (1D), vertical, 2-3m deep, and free-draining soil hydrology in current ESM land models, we argue that 3D, lateral ridge-to-valley flow through shallow and deep paths, and insolation contrasts between sunny and shady slopes, are the top two basic, long-acknowledged, and readily quantifiable organizers of water and energy (and hence vegetation) within an ESM grid cell. We argue that these two processes will be most consequential where (and when) water and/or energy are limiting. We further hypothesize that if they are implemented in ESM land models, they will increase continental water storage and residence time, buffering land ecosystems against seasonal and interannual droughts. We explore efficient ways to capture these mechanisms in ESMs and identify critical knowledge gaps preventing us from scaling up hillslope to global processes. One such gapmore » is our extremely limited view of the subsurface, where water is stored to support vegetation and released to stream baseflow and aquatic ecosystems. We conclude with a call for global syntheses activities and model experiments to assess the impact of hillslope hydrology on global change predictions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20] more »;  [9];  [20];  [2];  [21];  [22];  [20];  [23];  [24]; ORCiD logo [25];  [26];  [27];  [26];  [28];  [6];  [29];  [30];  [31] « less
  1. Rutgers University
  2. National Center for Atmospheric Research
  3. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  4. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  5. University of Virginia
  6. Pennsylvania State University
  7. University of Utah
  8. University of California, Berkeley
  9. Boise State University
  10. Oregon State University
  11. Department of Environmental Systems Science - ETH Zürich
  12. State University of New York at Buffalo
  13. University of Saskatchewan
  14. US Geological Survey
  15. University of Kansas
  16. University of California, Santa Barbara
  17. University of California, Riverside
  18. Duke University
  19. Universities of Freiburg
  20. University of Arizona
  21. Ghent University
  22. University of Bristol
  23. Northeastern University
  24. Purdue University
  25. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  26. University of Washington
  27. Texas A & M University
  28. USDA Forest Service, PSW Research Station, Fresno CA
  29. Department of Catchment and Urban Hydrology, Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands
  30. University of Nevada - Reno
  31. Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1523253
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-138869
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Water Resources Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 55; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Fan, Ying, Clark, Martyn P., Lawrence, David M., Swenson, Sean C., Band, L E., Brantley, Susan L., Brooks, Paul, Dietrich, William E., Flores, A, Grant, Gordon, Kirchner, James W., Mackay, D. Scott, McDonnell, Jeffrey, Milly, C, Sullivan, Pamela, Tague, C L., Ajami, Hoori, Chaney, Nathaniel, Hartmann, Andreas, Hazenberg, Pieter, McNamara, James, Pelletier, Jon, Perket, Justin, Rouholahnejad-Freund, Elham, Wagener, Thorsten, Zeng, Xubin, Beighley, R E., Buzan, Jonathan, Huang, Maoyi, Livneh, Ben, Mohanty, Binayak, Nijssen, Bart, Safeeq, Mohammad, Shen, Chaopeng, vanVerseveld, Willem, Volk, J, and Yamazaki, Dai. Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018WR023903.
Fan, Ying, Clark, Martyn P., Lawrence, David M., Swenson, Sean C., Band, L E., Brantley, Susan L., Brooks, Paul, Dietrich, William E., Flores, A, Grant, Gordon, Kirchner, James W., Mackay, D. Scott, McDonnell, Jeffrey, Milly, C, Sullivan, Pamela, Tague, C L., Ajami, Hoori, Chaney, Nathaniel, Hartmann, Andreas, Hazenberg, Pieter, McNamara, James, Pelletier, Jon, Perket, Justin, Rouholahnejad-Freund, Elham, Wagener, Thorsten, Zeng, Xubin, Beighley, R E., Buzan, Jonathan, Huang, Maoyi, Livneh, Ben, Mohanty, Binayak, Nijssen, Bart, Safeeq, Mohammad, Shen, Chaopeng, vanVerseveld, Willem, Volk, J, & Yamazaki, Dai. Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling. United States. doi:10.1029/2018WR023903.
Fan, Ying, Clark, Martyn P., Lawrence, David M., Swenson, Sean C., Band, L E., Brantley, Susan L., Brooks, Paul, Dietrich, William E., Flores, A, Grant, Gordon, Kirchner, James W., Mackay, D. Scott, McDonnell, Jeffrey, Milly, C, Sullivan, Pamela, Tague, C L., Ajami, Hoori, Chaney, Nathaniel, Hartmann, Andreas, Hazenberg, Pieter, McNamara, James, Pelletier, Jon, Perket, Justin, Rouholahnejad-Freund, Elham, Wagener, Thorsten, Zeng, Xubin, Beighley, R E., Buzan, Jonathan, Huang, Maoyi, Livneh, Ben, Mohanty, Binayak, Nijssen, Bart, Safeeq, Mohammad, Shen, Chaopeng, vanVerseveld, Willem, Volk, J, and Yamazaki, Dai. Wed . "Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling". United States. doi:10.1029/2018WR023903.
@article{osti_1523253,
title = {Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling},
author = {Fan, Ying and Clark, Martyn P. and Lawrence, David M. and Swenson, Sean C. and Band, L E. and Brantley, Susan L. and Brooks, Paul and Dietrich, William E. and Flores, A and Grant, Gordon and Kirchner, James W. and Mackay, D. Scott and McDonnell, Jeffrey and Milly, C and Sullivan, Pamela and Tague, C L. and Ajami, Hoori and Chaney, Nathaniel and Hartmann, Andreas and Hazenberg, Pieter and McNamara, James and Pelletier, Jon and Perket, Justin and Rouholahnejad-Freund, Elham and Wagener, Thorsten and Zeng, Xubin and Beighley, R E. and Buzan, Jonathan and Huang, Maoyi and Livneh, Ben and Mohanty, Binayak and Nijssen, Bart and Safeeq, Mohammad and Shen, Chaopeng and vanVerseveld, Willem and Volk, J and Yamazaki, Dai},
abstractNote = {Earth System Models (ESMs) are essential tools for understanding and predicting global change, but they cannot explicitly resolve hillslope-scale terrain structures that have been long recognized by hydrologists as the fundamental organizers of water, energy, and biogeochemical stores and fluxes. Here, we bring together hydrologists, Critical Zone scientists and ESM developers, to explore how hillslope structures may modulate ESM grid-level water, energy and biogeochemical fluxes. In contrast to the traditional one-dimensional (1D), vertical, 2-3m deep, and free-draining soil hydrology in current ESM land models, we argue that 3D, lateral ridge-to-valley flow through shallow and deep paths, and insolation contrasts between sunny and shady slopes, are the top two basic, long-acknowledged, and readily quantifiable organizers of water and energy (and hence vegetation) within an ESM grid cell. We argue that these two processes will be most consequential where (and when) water and/or energy are limiting. We further hypothesize that if they are implemented in ESM land models, they will increase continental water storage and residence time, buffering land ecosystems against seasonal and interannual droughts. We explore efficient ways to capture these mechanisms in ESMs and identify critical knowledge gaps preventing us from scaling up hillslope to global processes. One such gap is our extremely limited view of the subsurface, where water is stored to support vegetation and released to stream baseflow and aquatic ecosystems. We conclude with a call for global syntheses activities and model experiments to assess the impact of hillslope hydrology on global change predictions.},
doi = {10.1029/2018WR023903},
journal = {Water Resources Research},
number = 2,
volume = 55,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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A Revised Land Surface Parameterization (SiB2) for Atmospheric GCMS. Part I: Model Formulation
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Where do channels begin?
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Weathering and erosion of fractured bedrock systems: Weathering and erosion of fractured bedrock systems
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Interdependence of groundwater dynamics and land-energy feedbacks under climate change
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On the need for catchment classification
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The Use of Similarity Concepts to Represent Subgrid Variability in Land Surface Models: Case Study in a Snowmelt-Dominated Watershed
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Groundwater flow across spatial scales: importance for climate modeling
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Sources and routing of the Amazon River Flood Wave
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Kinematic subsurface stormflow
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A Budyko framework for estimating how spatial heterogeneity and lateral moisture redistribution affect average evapotranspiration rates as seen from the atmosphere
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Hydrologic refugia, plants, and climate change
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Near-surface hydrologic response for a steep, unchanneled catchment near Coos Bay, Oregon: 2. Physics-based simulations
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Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species
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Soil Catena Sequences and Fire Ecology in the Boreal Forest of Alaska
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Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: basis for distributed simulation
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Direct observations of rock moisture, a hidden component of the hydrologic cycle
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A simple hydrologic framework for simulating wetlands in climate and earth system models
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Accounting for landscape heterogeneity improves spatial predictions of tree vulnerability to drought
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Role of deep soil moisture in modulating climate in the Amazon rainforest: DEEP SOIL MOISTURE AND AMAZON CLIMATE
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A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling
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Depth and character of rock weathering across a basaltic-hosted climosequence on Hawai‘i: BASALT WEATHERING HAWAI‘I CLIMO-CHRONOSEQUENCE
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Sensitivity of transpiration to subsurface properties: Exploration with a 1‐D model
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Geophysical constraints on deep weathering and water storage potential in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory: GEOPHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON WEATHERING IN THE SOUTHERN SIERRA CZO
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Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin
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Interbasin groundwater flow and groundwater interaction with surface water in a lowland rainforest, Costa Rica: A review
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Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties
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Permeability of the continental crust: Implications of geothermal data and metamorphic systems
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Deriving a global river network map and its sub-grid topographic characteristics from a fine-resolution flow direction map
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Depth dependence and exponential models of permeability in alluvial-fan gravel deposits
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A new analytical solution of topography-driven flow in a drainage basin with depth-dependent anisotropy of permeability: TECHNICAL NOTE
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Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem
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Hydrological connectivity of hillslopes and streams: Characteristic time scales and nonlinearities
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Relationships between soil hydrology and forest structure and composition in the southern Brazilian Amazon
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Representing spatial variability of snow water equivalent in hydrologic and land-surface models: A review: REPRESENTING SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SWE IN MODELS
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Putting the cat in the box: why our models should consider subsurface heterogeneity at all scales: Putting the cat in the box
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The two water worlds hypothesis: ecohydrological separation of water between streams and trees?: The two water worlds hypothesis
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Interactive Effects of Vegetation Type and Topographic Position on Nitrogen Availability and Loss in a Temperate Montane Ecosystem
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A glimpse beneath earth's surface: GLobal HYdrogeology MaPS (GLHYMPS) of permeability and porosity
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Fault zone hydrogeology
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Toward a uniform theory of clastic sediment yield in fluvial systems
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Soil Moisture Response to Snowmelt and Rainfall in a Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest
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A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model: 1. Model structure
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Enhancement of bedrock permeability by weathering
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The effects of slope orientation on plant growth, developmental instability and susceptibility to herbivores
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Subsurface plant-accessible water in mountain ecosystems with a Mediterranean climate
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A simple TOPMODEL-based runoff parameterization (SIMTOP) for use in global climate models
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Topographic stress and rock fracture: a two-dimensional numerical model for arbitrary topography and preliminary comparison with borehole observations: TOPOGRAPHIC STRESS AND ROCK FRACTURE
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Aspect influences on soil water retention and storage: ASPECT AND SOIL WATER RETENTION
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Catchment Classification and Hydrologic Similarity
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Comparing satellite derived precipitation datasets using the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in the Congo River Basin
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Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: LUQUILLO DEEP CRITICAL ZONE
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Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling: ACCELERATING ADVANCES IN CONTINENTAL HYDROLOGIC MODELING
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The Convexity of Hilltops
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The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe
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On the asymmetric response of aquifer water level to floods and droughts in Illinois
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Pedotransfer Functions for the Estimation of Soil Water Retention in Brazilian Soils
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Seasonal hydrologic buffer on continents: Patterns, drivers and ecological benefits
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Trees: a powerful geomorphic agent governing the landscape evolution of a subtropical wetland
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Modeling spatiotemporal dynamics of global wetlands: comprehensive evaluation of a new sub-grid TOPMODEL parameterization and uncertainties
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Compiling and Mapping Global Permeability of the Unconsolidated and Consolidated Earth: GLobal HYdrogeology MaPS 2.0 (GLHYMPS 2.0)
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Designing a network of critical zone observatories to explore the living skin of the terrestrial Earth
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A CyberGIS Integration and Computation Framework for High-Resolution Continental-Scale Flood Inundation Mapping
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Effects of a Groundwater Scheme on the Simulation of Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration over Southern South America
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Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning
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River Channel Geometry and Rating Curve Estimation Using Height above the Nearest Drainage
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The impact of seepage influx on cation content of a Central Amazonian floodplain lake
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A Closed-form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils1
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Vertical distance from drainage drives floristic composition changes in an Amazonian rainforest
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Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)
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Multi-scale Influences of Slope Aspect and Spatial Pattern on Ecotonal Dynamics at Upper Treeline in the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A
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Toward a conceptual model relating chemical reaction fronts to water flow paths in hills
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Semi-empirical equations for the systematic decrease in permeability with depth in porous and fractured media
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Which way do you lean? Using slope aspect variations to understand Critical Zone processes and feedbacks: Which way do you lean?
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Hillslope Topography Mediates Spatial Patterns of Ecosystem Sensitivity to Climate: Forest Productivity in Complex Terrain
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Local Hydrological Conditions Explain Floristic Composition in Lowland Amazonian Forests
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Aspect and slope influence plant community composition more than elevation across forest-tundra ecotones in subarctic Canada
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A Rationale for Old Water Discharge Through Macropores in a Steep, Humid Catchment
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The role of groundwater in the Amazon water cycle: 3. Influence on terrestrial water storage computations and comparison with GRACE: AMAZON GROUNDWATER AND TWS VARIATION
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The future of hydrology: An evolving science for a changing world: OPINION
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TOPMODEL: A critique
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Towards a simple representation of chalk hydrology in land surface modelling
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Partial Area Contributions to Storm Runoff in a Small New England Watershed
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The global volume and distribution of modern groundwater
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Catchment-scale advection and dispersion as a mechanism for fractal scaling in stream tracer concentrations
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Rock damage and regolith transport by frost: an example of climate modulation of the geomorphology of the critical zone: ROCK DAMAGE AND REGOLITH TRANSPORT BY FROST
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The Effect of Grass on Trees
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Co-occurring woody species have diverse hydraulic strategies and mortality rates during an extreme drought: Belowground hydraulic failure during drought
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Correlating Global Precipitation Measurement satellite data with karst spring hydrographs for rapid catchment delineation: SPRING CATCHMENT DELINEATION USING GPM
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Water subsidies from mountains to deserts: their role in sustaining groundwater-fed oases in a sandy landscape
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Butteressing of Tropical Trees: A Descriptive Model and New Hypotheses
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Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene
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Land–Water interactions in the amazon
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A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana: SURFACE WATER MODEL OF OKAVANGO DELTA, BOTSWANA
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Distributed parameterization of complex terrain
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Reviews and syntheses: on the roles trees play in building and plumbing the critical zone
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OZCAR: The French Network of Critical Zone Observatories
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On the maximum extent of tree roots
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Geomorphic controls on regional base flow
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An Enhanced Model of Land Water and Energy for Global Hydrologic and Earth-System Studies
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New lessons on the Sudd hydrology learned from remote sensing and climate modeling
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A net ecosystem carbon budget for snow dominated forested headwater catchments: linking water and carbon fluxes to critical zone carbon storage
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