skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter with CDMSlite Using a Profile Likelihood Fit

Abstract

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) searches for interactions between dark matter particles and germanium nuclei in cryogenic detectors. The experiment has achieved a low energy threshold with improved sensitivity to low-mass (<10 GeV/c2) dark matter particles. We present an analysis of the final CDMSlite data set, taken with a different detector than was used for the two previous CDMSlite data sets. This analysis includes a data "salting" method to protect against bias, improved noise discrimination, background modeling, and the use of profile likelihood methods to search for a dark matter signal in the presence of backgrounds. We achieve an energy threshold of 70 eV and significantly improve the sensitivity for dark matter particles with masses between 2.5 and 10 GeV/c2 compared to previous analyses. We set an upper limit on the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section in germanium of 5.4×10-42 cm2 at 5 GeV/c2, a factor of ~2.5 improvement over the previous CDMSlite result.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11]; ORCiD logo [4];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [14];  [15];  [2];  [13] more »;  [2];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [18];  [16];  [21];  [19];  [19];  [2];  [5];  [5];  [22]; ORCiD logo [4];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [13];  [5];  [25];  [11];  [16];  [5];  [12];  [5];  [4];  [26];  [27];  [28];  [5];  [16];  [16];  [29];  [5];  [30];  [31];  [16];  [5]; ORCiD logo [4];  [28];  [28];  [14];  [16];  [12];  [9];  [18];  [13];  [19];  [32];  [22];  [1];  [9];  [33];  [16];  [1];  [18];  [9];  [28];  [29];  [13];  [30];  [18];  [18];  [12];  [13];  [29];  [34];  [35];  [19];  [16];  [28];  [18];  [35];  [34];  [5];  [14];  [12];  [36];  [19];  [5] « less
  1. University of Florida
  2. California Institute of Technology
  3. SLAC
  4. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  5. Texas A & M University
  6. School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research
  7. Minnesota, Univ Of - Minneapol
  8. Fermi National Lab
  9. University of South Dakota
  10. Syracuse University
  11. SLAC NATIONAL ACCELERATOR LABORATORY
  12. Stanford University
  13. Southern Methodist University
  14. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
  15. University of Durham
  16. University of Minnesota
  17. University of Montreal
  18. University of California, Berkeley
  19. Queen's University (Ontario)
  20. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  21. Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  22. Northwestern University
  23. Fermi National Acceleratory Laboratory
  24. University of Colorado at Denver
  25. HBNI
  26. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
  27. FermiNational Accelerator Laboratory
  28. University of British Columbia
  29. South Dakota School of Mines & Technology
  30. NISER
  31. MItchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy
  32. University of Evansville
  33. Fermi National Laboratory, Illinois
  34. University of Toronto
  35. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy
  36. Santa Clara University
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1523195
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-139404
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Agnese, R, Aralis, T., Aramaki, T, Arnquist, Isaac J., Azadbakht, Elham, Baker, W, Banik, Samir, Barker, D, Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M A., Brink, Paul L., Bunker, Raymond A., Cabrera, B, Calkins, R, Cameron, Robert, Cartaro, C, Cerdeno, D, Chang, Y., Cooley, J, Cornell, B, Cushman, Priscilla B., De Brienne, F., Doughty, T, Fascione, E, Figueroa-Feliciano, E, Fink, Caleb, Fritts, M, Gerbier, G, Germond, R, Ghaith, M, Golwala, S R., Harris, R H., Herbert, N., Hong, Z, Hoppe, Eric W., Hsu, L, Huber, M E., Iyer, V, Jardin, D M., Jastram, A, Jena, C, Kelsey, Michael H., Kennedy, A, Kubik, A, Kurinsky, N A., Lawrence, Richard, Loer, Ben M., Lopez Asamar, E, Lukens, P, Macdonell, D, Mahapatra, R, Mandic, V, Mast, N, Miller, E, Mirabolfathi, Nader, Mohantry, B, Morales Mendoza, J D., Nelson, J, Neog, H., Orrell, John L., Oser, S M., Page, W A., Partridge, R, Pepin, M, Ponce, Francisco, Poudel, S, Pyle, M, Qiu, H, Rau, W, Reisetter, A, Ren, Tom, Reynolds, T, Roberts, A, Robinson, Alan E., Rogers, H E., Saab, T, Sadoulet, B, Sander, J, Scarff, Andrew, Schnee, R W., Scorza, S, Senapati, K, Serfass, B, Speller, D, Stanford, Chris, Stein, M, Street, Joseph, Tanaka, H, Toback, D, Underwood, Ryan, Villano, A N., Von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S L., Wilson, J S., Wilson, Matthew J., Winchell, Joshua, Wright, D H., Yellin, S, Young, B A., Zhang, X, and Zhao, X. Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter with CDMSlite Using a Profile Likelihood Fit. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.062001.
Agnese, R, Aralis, T., Aramaki, T, Arnquist, Isaac J., Azadbakht, Elham, Baker, W, Banik, Samir, Barker, D, Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M A., Brink, Paul L., Bunker, Raymond A., Cabrera, B, Calkins, R, Cameron, Robert, Cartaro, C, Cerdeno, D, Chang, Y., Cooley, J, Cornell, B, Cushman, Priscilla B., De Brienne, F., Doughty, T, Fascione, E, Figueroa-Feliciano, E, Fink, Caleb, Fritts, M, Gerbier, G, Germond, R, Ghaith, M, Golwala, S R., Harris, R H., Herbert, N., Hong, Z, Hoppe, Eric W., Hsu, L, Huber, M E., Iyer, V, Jardin, D M., Jastram, A, Jena, C, Kelsey, Michael H., Kennedy, A, Kubik, A, Kurinsky, N A., Lawrence, Richard, Loer, Ben M., Lopez Asamar, E, Lukens, P, Macdonell, D, Mahapatra, R, Mandic, V, Mast, N, Miller, E, Mirabolfathi, Nader, Mohantry, B, Morales Mendoza, J D., Nelson, J, Neog, H., Orrell, John L., Oser, S M., Page, W A., Partridge, R, Pepin, M, Ponce, Francisco, Poudel, S, Pyle, M, Qiu, H, Rau, W, Reisetter, A, Ren, Tom, Reynolds, T, Roberts, A, Robinson, Alan E., Rogers, H E., Saab, T, Sadoulet, B, Sander, J, Scarff, Andrew, Schnee, R W., Scorza, S, Senapati, K, Serfass, B, Speller, D, Stanford, Chris, Stein, M, Street, Joseph, Tanaka, H, Toback, D, Underwood, Ryan, Villano, A N., Von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S L., Wilson, J S., Wilson, Matthew J., Winchell, Joshua, Wright, D H., Yellin, S, Young, B A., Zhang, X, & Zhao, X. Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter with CDMSlite Using a Profile Likelihood Fit. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.062001.
Agnese, R, Aralis, T., Aramaki, T, Arnquist, Isaac J., Azadbakht, Elham, Baker, W, Banik, Samir, Barker, D, Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M A., Brink, Paul L., Bunker, Raymond A., Cabrera, B, Calkins, R, Cameron, Robert, Cartaro, C, Cerdeno, D, Chang, Y., Cooley, J, Cornell, B, Cushman, Priscilla B., De Brienne, F., Doughty, T, Fascione, E, Figueroa-Feliciano, E, Fink, Caleb, Fritts, M, Gerbier, G, Germond, R, Ghaith, M, Golwala, S R., Harris, R H., Herbert, N., Hong, Z, Hoppe, Eric W., Hsu, L, Huber, M E., Iyer, V, Jardin, D M., Jastram, A, Jena, C, Kelsey, Michael H., Kennedy, A, Kubik, A, Kurinsky, N A., Lawrence, Richard, Loer, Ben M., Lopez Asamar, E, Lukens, P, Macdonell, D, Mahapatra, R, Mandic, V, Mast, N, Miller, E, Mirabolfathi, Nader, Mohantry, B, Morales Mendoza, J D., Nelson, J, Neog, H., Orrell, John L., Oser, S M., Page, W A., Partridge, R, Pepin, M, Ponce, Francisco, Poudel, S, Pyle, M, Qiu, H, Rau, W, Reisetter, A, Ren, Tom, Reynolds, T, Roberts, A, Robinson, Alan E., Rogers, H E., Saab, T, Sadoulet, B, Sander, J, Scarff, Andrew, Schnee, R W., Scorza, S, Senapati, K, Serfass, B, Speller, D, Stanford, Chris, Stein, M, Street, Joseph, Tanaka, H, Toback, D, Underwood, Ryan, Villano, A N., Von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S L., Wilson, J S., Wilson, Matthew J., Winchell, Joshua, Wright, D H., Yellin, S, Young, B A., Zhang, X, and Zhao, X. Fri . "Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter with CDMSlite Using a Profile Likelihood Fit". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.062001.
@article{osti_1523195,
title = {Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter with CDMSlite Using a Profile Likelihood Fit},
author = {Agnese, R and Aralis, T. and Aramaki, T and Arnquist, Isaac J. and Azadbakht, Elham and Baker, W and Banik, Samir and Barker, D and Bauer, D. A. and Binder, T. and Bowles, M A. and Brink, Paul L. and Bunker, Raymond A. and Cabrera, B and Calkins, R and Cameron, Robert and Cartaro, C and Cerdeno, D and Chang, Y. and Cooley, J and Cornell, B and Cushman, Priscilla B. and De Brienne, F. and Doughty, T and Fascione, E and Figueroa-Feliciano, E and Fink, Caleb and Fritts, M and Gerbier, G and Germond, R and Ghaith, M and Golwala, S R. and Harris, R H. and Herbert, N. and Hong, Z and Hoppe, Eric W. and Hsu, L and Huber, M E. and Iyer, V and Jardin, D M. and Jastram, A and Jena, C and Kelsey, Michael H. and Kennedy, A and Kubik, A and Kurinsky, N A. and Lawrence, Richard and Loer, Ben M. and Lopez Asamar, E and Lukens, P and Macdonell, D and Mahapatra, R and Mandic, V and Mast, N and Miller, E and Mirabolfathi, Nader and Mohantry, B and Morales Mendoza, J D. and Nelson, J and Neog, H. and Orrell, John L. and Oser, S M. and Page, W A. and Partridge, R and Pepin, M and Ponce, Francisco and Poudel, S and Pyle, M and Qiu, H and Rau, W and Reisetter, A and Ren, Tom and Reynolds, T and Roberts, A and Robinson, Alan E. and Rogers, H E. and Saab, T and Sadoulet, B and Sander, J and Scarff, Andrew and Schnee, R W. and Scorza, S and Senapati, K and Serfass, B and Speller, D and Stanford, Chris and Stein, M and Street, Joseph and Tanaka, H and Toback, D and Underwood, Ryan and Villano, A N. and Von Krosigk, B. and Watkins, S L. and Wilson, J S. and Wilson, Matthew J. and Winchell, Joshua and Wright, D H. and Yellin, S and Young, B A. and Zhang, X and Zhao, X},
abstractNote = {The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) searches for interactions between dark matter particles and germanium nuclei in cryogenic detectors. The experiment has achieved a low energy threshold with improved sensitivity to low-mass (<10 GeV/c2) dark matter particles. We present an analysis of the final CDMSlite data set, taken with a different detector than was used for the two previous CDMSlite data sets. This analysis includes a data "salting" method to protect against bias, improved noise discrimination, background modeling, and the use of profile likelihood methods to search for a dark matter signal in the presence of backgrounds. We achieve an energy threshold of 70 eV and significantly improve the sensitivity for dark matter particles with masses between 2.5 and 10 GeV/c2 compared to previous analyses. We set an upper limit on the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section in germanium of 5.4×10-42 cm2 at 5 GeV/c2, a factor of ~2.5 improvement over the previous CDMSlite result.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.99.062001},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 6,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Dark Matter Results from First 98.7 Days of Data from the PandaX-II Experiment
journal, September 2016


Review of mathematics, numerical factors, and corrections for dark matter experiments based on elastic nuclear recoil
journal, December 1996


Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment
journal, January 2014


An algorithm for computing screened Coulomb scattering in Geant4
journal, January 2005

  • Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Weller, Robert A.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 227, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.08.014

Voltage‐assisted calorimetric ionization detector
journal, December 1988

  • Luke, P. N.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 64, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.341976

Distribution-free Tests of fit for Continuous Distribution Functions
journal, March 1953


Finding an upper limit in the presence of an unknown background
journal, August 2002


Limits on Light Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from the First 102.8 kg × day Data of the CDEX-10 Experiment
journal, June 2018


Half-life of Ge 71
journal, February 1985


Blind background prediction using a bifurcated analysis scheme
journal, April 2010

  • Nix, J.; Ma, J.; Perdue, G. N.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 615, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.01.074

Review of Asymmetric dark Matter
journal, July 2013

  • Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R.
  • International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 28, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X13300287

Search for low-mass WIMPs in a 0.6 kg day exposure of the DAMIC experiment at SNOLAB
journal, October 2016


Review of Particle Physics
journal, August 2018


Geant4 developments and applications
journal, February 2006

  • Allison, J.; Amako, K.; Apostolakis, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 53, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2006.869826

Inelastic and Elastic Scattering of 187-Mev Electrons from Selected Even-Even Nuclei
journal, December 1956


Large-mass ultralow noise germanium detectors: performance and applications in neutrino and astroparticle physics
journal, September 2007

  • Barbeau, P. S.; Collar, J. I.; Tench, O.
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2007, Issue 09
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2007/09/009

The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment
journal, November 2008

  • Michael, D. G.; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 596, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.08.003

Low-Mass Dark Matter Search with the DarkSide-50 Experiment
journal, August 2018


Planck 2015 results : XIII. Cosmological parameters
journal, September 2016


Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels
journal, January 1967


Ionization Yield of Radiations. II. The Fluctuations of the Number of Ions
journal, July 1947


Energy lost to ionization by 254-eV Ge 73 atoms stopping in Ge
journal, April 1975


Ionization Produced by Energetic Germanium Atoms within a Germanium Lattice
journal, March 1966


Calibration of a Ge crystal with nuclear recoils for the development of a dark matter detector
journal, August 1995


Recent developments in Geant4
journal, November 2016

  • Allison, J.; Amako, K.; Apostolakis, J.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 835
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.06.125

Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO 60 C 3 F 8 Bubble Chamber
journal, June 2017


Calculation of fractional electron capture probabilities
journal, August 1998


Dark forces and light dark matter
journal, September 2012


Results on light dark matter particles with a low-threshold CRESST-II detector
journal, January 2016


Germanium detector response to nuclear recoils in searching for dark matter
journal, October 2012


Production rate measurement of Tritium and other cosmogenic isotopes in Germanium with CDMSlite
journal, January 2019


Likelihood approach to the first dark matter results from XENON100
journal, September 2011


Asymmetric Dark Matter: Theories, signatures, and constraints
journal, April 2014


New Results from the Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with the CDMS Low Ionization Threshold Experiment
journal, February 2016


Low-mass dark matter search with CDMSlite
journal, January 2018


Supersymmetric dark matter
journal, March 1996


A low energy bound atomic electron Compton scattering model for Geant4
journal, November 2014

  • Brown, J. M. C.; Dimmock, M. R.; Gillam, J. E.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 338
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.07.042

First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory
journal, November 2004


Fano Factor in Germanium at 77°K
journal, November 1967


Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS
journal, June 2014


The Large-Sample Distribution of the Likelihood Ratio for Testing Composite Hypotheses
journal, March 1938


Measurements of the Fano factor and the energy per hole-electron pair in germanium
journal, March 1966


Exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section from the first run of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory
journal, September 2005


Measurement of low energy ionization signals from Compton scattering in a charge-coupled device dark matter detector
journal, August 2017


Geant4—a simulation toolkit
journal, July 2003

  • Agostinelli, S.; Allison, J.; Amako, K.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 506, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8

Presentation of search results: the CL s technique
journal, September 2002


Demonstration of surface electron rejection with interleaved germanium detectors for dark matter searches
journal, October 2013

  • Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4826093

Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles
journal, January 1985


Stopping of 1- to 1.8-keV Ge 73 Atoms in Germanium
journal, July 1971


Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment
journal, April 2017