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Title: Adsorption and capacitive regeneration of nitrate using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant functionalized carbon electrodes [Nitrate removal using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant-treated electrodes]

Abstract

Nitrate is a pollutant present in groundwater worldwide. Several techniques are available to remove nitrate from water, but they are difficult to automate in remote settings or require chemicals for treatment for regeneration. Here, we demonstrate the use of two surfactant-treated high surface area porous electrodes for passive adsorption of nitrate followed by electrical regeneration. In order to generate the surface charge driving adsorption, we functionalized the active electrode (cathode) and capacitive counter electrode (anode) with cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS), respectively. We find voltage applied during regeneration is directly proportional to the subsequent available adsorption capacity at short circuit. In a recent preliminary work, we used a Faradaic counter electrode, and here, we compare both studies in terms of energy-normalized adsorbed salt (ENAS)—a measure of energy efficiency—and average salt adsorption rate (ASAR). Lastly, we show that capacitive counter electrode used in this work increases ENAS by two orders of magnitude, while maintaining a similar ASAR.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1518558
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-742428
Journal ID: ISSN 1383-5866; 888331
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Separation and Purification Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 194; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1383-5866
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Oyarzun, Diego I., Hemmatifar, Ali, Palko, James W., Stadermann, Michael, and Santiago, Juan G. Adsorption and capacitive regeneration of nitrate using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant functionalized carbon electrodes [Nitrate removal using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant-treated electrodes]. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2017.11.027.
Oyarzun, Diego I., Hemmatifar, Ali, Palko, James W., Stadermann, Michael, & Santiago, Juan G. Adsorption and capacitive regeneration of nitrate using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant functionalized carbon electrodes [Nitrate removal using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant-treated electrodes]. United States. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2017.11.027.
Oyarzun, Diego I., Hemmatifar, Ali, Palko, James W., Stadermann, Michael, and Santiago, Juan G. Tue . "Adsorption and capacitive regeneration of nitrate using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant functionalized carbon electrodes [Nitrate removal using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant-treated electrodes]". United States. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2017.11.027. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1518558.
@article{osti_1518558,
title = {Adsorption and capacitive regeneration of nitrate using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant functionalized carbon electrodes [Nitrate removal using inverted capacitive deionization with surfactant-treated electrodes]},
author = {Oyarzun, Diego I. and Hemmatifar, Ali and Palko, James W. and Stadermann, Michael and Santiago, Juan G.},
abstractNote = {Nitrate is a pollutant present in groundwater worldwide. Several techniques are available to remove nitrate from water, but they are difficult to automate in remote settings or require chemicals for treatment for regeneration. Here, we demonstrate the use of two surfactant-treated high surface area porous electrodes for passive adsorption of nitrate followed by electrical regeneration. In order to generate the surface charge driving adsorption, we functionalized the active electrode (cathode) and capacitive counter electrode (anode) with cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS), respectively. We find voltage applied during regeneration is directly proportional to the subsequent available adsorption capacity at short circuit. In a recent preliminary work, we used a Faradaic counter electrode, and here, we compare both studies in terms of energy-normalized adsorbed salt (ENAS)—a measure of energy efficiency—and average salt adsorption rate (ASAR). Lastly, we show that capacitive counter electrode used in this work increases ENAS by two orders of magnitude, while maintaining a similar ASAR.},
doi = {10.1016/j.seppur.2017.11.027},
journal = {Separation and Purification Technology},
issn = {1383-5866},
number = C,
volume = 194,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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