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Title: Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse

Abstract

Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6-10km 3) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ~130 ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100 years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [6];  [7];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [9];  [11];  [12];  [13] more »;  [9];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19] « less
  1. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)
  2. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)
  3. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  6. Plymouth Univ., Plymouth (United Kingdom)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)
  9. Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, Paris (France)
  10. Geological Survey of Japan (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)
  11. Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)
  12. Yamagata Univ., Yamagata (Japan)
  13. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  14. Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)
  15. Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan)
  16. Niigata Univ., Nishi-ku (Japan)
  17. Univ. of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)
  18. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka (Japan)
  19. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1512134
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; sector collapse; clinopyroxene; petrology; magma ascent

Citation Formats

Cassidy, M., Watt, S. F. L., Talling, P. J., Palmer, M. R., Edmonds, M., Jutzeler, M., Wall-Palmer, D., Manga, M., Coussens, M., Gernon, T., Taylor, R. N., Michalik, A., Inglis, E., Breitkreuz, C., Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., McCanta, M. C., Adachi, T., Hornbach, M. J., Colas, S. L., Endo, D., Fujinawa, A., Kataoka, K. S., Maeno, F., Tamura, Y., and Wang, F. Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/2015GL064519.
Cassidy, M., Watt, S. F. L., Talling, P. J., Palmer, M. R., Edmonds, M., Jutzeler, M., Wall-Palmer, D., Manga, M., Coussens, M., Gernon, T., Taylor, R. N., Michalik, A., Inglis, E., Breitkreuz, C., Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., McCanta, M. C., Adachi, T., Hornbach, M. J., Colas, S. L., Endo, D., Fujinawa, A., Kataoka, K. S., Maeno, F., Tamura, Y., & Wang, F. Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse. United States. doi:10.1002/2015GL064519.
Cassidy, M., Watt, S. F. L., Talling, P. J., Palmer, M. R., Edmonds, M., Jutzeler, M., Wall-Palmer, D., Manga, M., Coussens, M., Gernon, T., Taylor, R. N., Michalik, A., Inglis, E., Breitkreuz, C., Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., McCanta, M. C., Adachi, T., Hornbach, M. J., Colas, S. L., Endo, D., Fujinawa, A., Kataoka, K. S., Maeno, F., Tamura, Y., and Wang, F. Mon . "Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse". United States. doi:10.1002/2015GL064519. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1512134.
@article{osti_1512134,
title = {Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse},
author = {Cassidy, M. and Watt, S. F. L. and Talling, P. J. and Palmer, M. R. and Edmonds, M. and Jutzeler, M. and Wall-Palmer, D. and Manga, M. and Coussens, M. and Gernon, T. and Taylor, R. N. and Michalik, A. and Inglis, E. and Breitkreuz, C. and Le Friant, A. and Ishizuka, O. and Boudon, G. and McCanta, M. C. and Adachi, T. and Hornbach, M. J. and Colas, S. L. and Endo, D. and Fujinawa, A. and Kataoka, K. S. and Maeno, F. and Tamura, Y. and Wang, F.},
abstractNote = {Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6-10km3) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ~130 ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100 years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.},
doi = {10.1002/2015GL064519},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
issn = {0094-8276},
number = 12,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: (a) Correlation of IODP core sections for the different deposits. Yellow is the basaltic fallout deposit, and the orange is the turbidite associated with landslide Deposit 2. M =mud, Si = silt, and G = gravel. (b) Map insert shows the location of the IODP core and debrismore » avalanche (Deposit 2). (c) Expanded log of IODP core 1394A, with bulk density calculated by gamma ray attenuation, magnetic susceptibility, grain size histograms, and componentry pie charts.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.