skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Layer specific observation of slow thermal equilibration in ultrathin metallic nanostructures by femtosecond X-ray diffraction

Abstract

Ultrafast heat transport in nanoscale metal multilayers is of great interest in the context of optically induced demagnetization, remagnetization and switching. If the penetration depth of light exceeds the bilayer thickness, layer-specific information is unavailable from optical probes. Femtosecond diffraction experiments provide unique experimental access to heat transport over single digit nanometer distances. Here, we investigate the structural response and the energy flow in the ultrathin double-layer system: gold on ferromagnetic nickel. Even though the excitation pulse is incident from the Au side, we observe a very rapid heating of the Ni lattice, whereas the Au lattice initially remains cold. The subsequent heat transfer from Ni to the Au lattice is found to be two orders of magnitude slower than predicted by the conventional heat equation and much slower than electron–phonon coupling times in Au. We present a simplified model calculation highlighting the relevant thermophysical quantities.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1];  [6]
  1. Universität Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Technical Univ. Munich, Garching (Germany)
  4. Technical Univ. Munich, Garching (Germany); Universität Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)
  5. Université Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy (France)
  6. Universität Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy GmbH, Berlin (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1511708
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-00ER15087
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Pudell, J., Maznev, A. A., Herzog, M., Kronseder, M., Back, C. H., Malinowski, G., von Reppert, A., and Bargheer, M. Layer specific observation of slow thermal equilibration in ultrathin metallic nanostructures by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05693-5.
Pudell, J., Maznev, A. A., Herzog, M., Kronseder, M., Back, C. H., Malinowski, G., von Reppert, A., & Bargheer, M. Layer specific observation of slow thermal equilibration in ultrathin metallic nanostructures by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05693-5.
Pudell, J., Maznev, A. A., Herzog, M., Kronseder, M., Back, C. H., Malinowski, G., von Reppert, A., and Bargheer, M. Mon . "Layer specific observation of slow thermal equilibration in ultrathin metallic nanostructures by femtosecond X-ray diffraction". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05693-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511708.
@article{osti_1511708,
title = {Layer specific observation of slow thermal equilibration in ultrathin metallic nanostructures by femtosecond X-ray diffraction},
author = {Pudell, J. and Maznev, A. A. and Herzog, M. and Kronseder, M. and Back, C. H. and Malinowski, G. and von Reppert, A. and Bargheer, M.},
abstractNote = {Ultrafast heat transport in nanoscale metal multilayers is of great interest in the context of optically induced demagnetization, remagnetization and switching. If the penetration depth of light exceeds the bilayer thickness, layer-specific information is unavailable from optical probes. Femtosecond diffraction experiments provide unique experimental access to heat transport over single digit nanometer distances. Here, we investigate the structural response and the energy flow in the ultrathin double-layer system: gold on ferromagnetic nickel. Even though the excitation pulse is incident from the Au side, we observe a very rapid heating of the Ni lattice, whereas the Au lattice initially remains cold. The subsequent heat transfer from Ni to the Au lattice is found to be two orders of magnitude slower than predicted by the conventional heat equation and much slower than electron–phonon coupling times in Au. We present a simplified model calculation highlighting the relevant thermophysical quantities.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-05693-5},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 8 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Indirect heating of Pt by short-pulse laser irradiation of Au in a nanoscale Pt/Au bilayer
journal, February 2014


Watching the Vibration and Cooling of Ultrathin Gold Nanotriangles by Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction
journal, December 2016

  • von Reppert, A.; Sarhan, R. M.; Stete, F.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 120, Issue 50
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b11651

Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams
journal, November 2009

  • Siemens, Mark E.; Li, Qing; Yang, Ronggui
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2568

Ultrafast x-ray diffraction thermometry measures the influence of spin excitations on the heat transport through nanolayers
journal, July 2017


Electronic Grüneisen parameter and thermal expansion in ferromagnetic transition metal
journal, March 2008

  • Wang, Xuan; Nie, Shouhua; Li, Junjie
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2902170

Optical excitation of thin magnetic layers in multilayer structures
journal, January 2014

  • Khorsand, A. R.; Savoini, M.; Kirilyuk, A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3850

Femtosecond optical investigation of electron–lattice interactions in an ensemble and a single metal nanoparticle
journal, May 2006


Reply to 'Optical excitation of thin magnetic layers in multilayer structures'
journal, January 2014

  • Eschenlohr, A.; Battiato, M.; Maldonado, P.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3851

Electron-phonon coupling and electron heat capacity of metals under conditions of strong electron-phonon nonequilibrium
journal, February 2008


Heat capacity of gold from 80 to 1000 K
journal, December 1986


Ultrafast spin-transfer torque driven by femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation
journal, July 2014

  • Schellekens, A. J.; Kuiper, K. C.; de Wit, R. R. J. C.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5333

Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order
journal, September 2010


Thermal spin-transfer torque driven by the spin-dependent Seebeck effect in metallic spin-valves
journal, June 2015

  • Choi, Gyung-Min; Moon, Chul-Hyun; Min, Byoung-Chul
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3355

Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold
journal, October 1993


Ballistic-phonon heat conduction at the nanoscale as revealed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction and time-domain thermoreflectance
journal, August 2007


Two types of all-optical magnetization switching mechanisms using femtosecond laser pulses
journal, August 2016


Thermal transport in a semiconductor heterostructure measured by time-resolved x-ray diffraction
journal, July 2008


Thermal conductance of metal-metal interfaces
journal, December 2005


Normalization schemes for ultrafast x-ray diffraction using a table-top laser-driven plasma source
journal, February 2012

  • Schick, D.; Bojahr, A.; Herzog, M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3681254

Femtosecond hard X-ray plasma sources with a kilohertz repetition rate
journal, March 2009


Superdiffusive Spin Transport as a Mechanism of Ultrafast Demagnetization
journal, July 2010


Onset of nondiffusive phonon transport in transient thermal grating decay
journal, November 2011


Persistent nonequilibrium dynamics of the thermal energies in the spin and phonon systems of an antiferromagnet
journal, September 2016

  • von Reppert, A.; Pudell, J.; Koc, A.
  • Structural Dynamics, Vol. 3, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961253

Temperature dependence of electron-phonon thermalization and its correlation to ultrafast magnetism
journal, June 2010


Theory of out-of-equilibrium ultrafast relaxation dynamics in metals
journal, November 2017


Ultrafast Magnetization Manipulation Using Single Femtosecond Light and Hot-Electron Pulses
journal, September 2017

  • Xu, Yong; Deb, Marwan; Malinowski, Grégory
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201703474

Thermal conductivity in metallic nanostructures at high temperature: Electrons, phonons, and the Wiedemann-Franz law
journal, August 2010


Physical contributions to the heat capacity of nickel
journal, January 1981

  • Meschter, Peter J.; Wright, James W.; Brooks, Charlie R.
  • Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Vol. 42, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-3697(81)90174-8

Ab Initio Investigation of the Elliott-Yafet Electron-Phonon Mechanism in Laser-Induced Ultrafast Demagnetization
journal, November 2011


Spin diffusion induced by pulsed-laser heating and the role of spin heat accumulation
journal, January 2017


Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012
journal, March 2014

  • Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang
  • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4832615

Picosecond acoustic response of a laser-heated gold-film studied with time-resolved x-ray diffraction
journal, May 2011

  • Nicoul, Matthieu; Shymanovich, Uladzimir; Tarasevitch, Alexander
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3584864

Nanoscale heat transport studied by high-resolution time-resolved x-ray diffraction
journal, September 2011


Explaining the paradoxical diversity of ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization
journal, December 2009

  • Koopmans, B.; Malinowski, G.; Dalla Longa, F.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2593

Ultrafast reciprocal-space mapping with a convergent beam
journal, August 2013

  • Schick, Daniel; Shayduk, Roman; Bojahr, André
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 46, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889813020013

Itinerant and Localized Magnetization Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Ho
journal, June 2016


Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching
journal, February 2014

  • Mangin, S.; Gottwald, M.; Lambert, C-H.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3864

Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer
journal, March 2009


Ultrafast spin transport as key to femtosecond demagnetization
journal, January 2013

  • Eschenlohr, A.; Battiato, M.; Maldonado, P.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3546

Electron-lattice energy relaxation in laser-excited thin-film Au-insulator heterostructures studied by ultrafast MeV electron diffraction
journal, September 2017

  • Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Shen, X.; Zheng, Q.
  • Structural Dynamics, Vol. 4, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4995258

Interplay of heating and helicity in all-optical magnetization switching
journal, March 2012


Ultrafast Magnetoacoustics in Nickel Films
journal, October 2012


Evidence for thermal mechanisms in laser-induced femtosecond spin dynamics
journal, May 2010


All-Optical Magnetic Recording with Circularly Polarized Light
journal, July 2007


Generation mechanism of terahertz coherent acoustic phonons in Fe
journal, June 2016


Measurements of the material properties of metal nanoparticles by time-resolved spectroscopy
journal, January 2004

  • Hartland, Gregory V.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/b413368d

Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals
journal, January 2000


Femtosecond Spin Current Pulses Generated by the Nonthermal Spin-Dependent Seebeck Effect and Interacting with Ferromagnets in Spin Valves
journal, July 2017


The Thermal Expansion of Pure Metals: Copper, Gold, Aluminum, Nickel, and Iron
journal, October 1941


Optically induced lattice dynamics probed with ultrafast x-ray diffraction
journal, April 2008


udkm1Dsim—A simulation toolkit for 1D ultrafast dynamics in condensed matter
journal, February 2014


Disparate ultrafast dynamics of itinerant and localized magnetic moments in gadolinium metal
journal, September 2015

  • Frietsch, B.; Bowlan, J.; Carley, R.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9262

Nanoscale thermal transport
journal, January 2003

  • Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, Issue 2, p. 793-818
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1524305