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Title: Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODPExpedition 340

Abstract

IODP Expedition 340 successfully drilled a series of sites offshore Montserrat, Martinique and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles from March to April 2012. These are among the few drill sites gathered around volcanic islands, and the first scientific drilling of large and likely tsunamigenic volcanic island-arc landslide deposits. These cores provide evidence and tests of previous hypotheses for the composition and origin of those deposits. Sites U1394, U1399, and U1400 that penetrated landslide deposits recovered exclusively seafloor sediment, comprising mainly turbidites and hemipelagic deposits, and lacked debris avalanche deposits. This supports the concepts that i/ volcanic debris avalanches tend to stop at the slope break, and ii/ widespread and voluminous failures of preexisting low-gradient seafloor sediment can be triggered by initial emplacement of material from the volcano. Offshore Martinique (U1399 and 1400), the landslide deposits comprised blocks of parallel strata that were tilted or microfaulted, sometimes separated by intervals of homogenized sediment (intense shearing), while Site U1394 offshore Montserrat penetrated a flat-lying block of intact strata. The most likely mechanism for generating these large-scale seafloor sediment failures appears to be propagation of a decollement from proximal areas loaded and incised by a volcanic debris avalanche. These results have implications formore » the magnitude of tsunami generation. Under some conditions, volcanic island landslide deposits composed of mainly seafloor sediment will tend to form smaller magnitude tsunamis than equivalent volumes of subaerial block-rich mass flows rapidly entering water. Expedition 340 also successfully drilled sites to access the undisturbed record of eruption fallout layers intercalated with marine sediment which provide an outstanding high-resolution data set to analyze eruption and landslides cycles, improve understanding of magmatic evolution as well as offshore sedimentation processes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [5];  [4];  [1];  [9];  [1];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14] more »;  [4];  [15];  [1];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [27];  [28];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [32];  [33];  [34] « less
  1. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 7154, 1, rue Jussieu Paris France
  2. Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Tsukuba Japan
  3. School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton UK
  4. National Oceanography Center, University of Southampton, Southampton UK
  5. Laboratoire de Petrologie, Geochimie, Volcanologie, University Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 7193, ISTEP Paris France
  6. Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Kojirakawa-machi Japan
  7. Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee Florida USA
  8. Department of Geology and Paleontology, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg Germany
  9. A203, Earth Evolution Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Japan
  10. Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Massachusetts USA
  11. Department of Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki University, Mito Japan
  12. Centre for Research in Earth Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth UK
  13. CEOAS, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA
  14. Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas Texas USA
  15. Research Institute for Natural Hazards and Disaster Recovery, Niigata University, Niigata Japan
  16. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 7154, 1, rue Jussieu Paris France; Now at Geomar Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel Germany
  17. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 7154, 1, rue Jussieu Paris France; Now at Fugro GeoConsulting SAS, 39 rue des Peupliers Nanterre France
  18. Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan
  19. Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley California USA
  20. College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg Florida USA
  21. Geology Department, Tufts University, Medford Massachusetts USA
  22. Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester UK
  23. International Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Matsumoto Japan
  24. Borehole Research Group, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades New York USA
  25. School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol UK
  26. Montserrat Volcano Observatory, Flemmings Montserrat West Indies
  27. Institut für Erd- Und Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Potsdam, Potsdam Germany
  28. Geochemistry Division, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad Telangana India
  29. Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, JAMSTEC Yokosuka Japan
  30. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane Australia
  31. Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania USA
  32. School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth UK
  33. Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China
  34. School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham UK
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
International Ocean Discovery Program
OSTI Identifier:
1511415
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1525-2027
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., Palmer, M. R., Talling, P. J., Villemant, B., Adachi, T., Aljahdali, M., Breitkreuz, C., Brunet, M., Caron, B., Coussens, M., Deplus, C., Endo, D., Feuillet, N., Fraas, A. J., Fujinawa, A., Hart, M. B., Hatfield, R. G., Hornbach, M., Jutzeler, M., Kataoka, K. S., Komorowski, J. -C., Lebas, E., Lafuerza, S., Maeno, F., Manga, M., Martínez-Colón, M., McCanta, M., Morgan, S., Saito, T., Slagle, A., Sparks, S., Stinton, A., Stroncik, N., Subramanyam, K. S. V., Tamura, Y., Trofimovs, J., Voight, B., Wall-Palmer, D., Wang, F., and Watt, S. F. L. Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODPExpedition 340. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/2014GC005652.
Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., Palmer, M. R., Talling, P. J., Villemant, B., Adachi, T., Aljahdali, M., Breitkreuz, C., Brunet, M., Caron, B., Coussens, M., Deplus, C., Endo, D., Feuillet, N., Fraas, A. J., Fujinawa, A., Hart, M. B., Hatfield, R. G., Hornbach, M., Jutzeler, M., Kataoka, K. S., Komorowski, J. -C., Lebas, E., Lafuerza, S., Maeno, F., Manga, M., Martínez-Colón, M., McCanta, M., Morgan, S., Saito, T., Slagle, A., Sparks, S., Stinton, A., Stroncik, N., Subramanyam, K. S. V., Tamura, Y., Trofimovs, J., Voight, B., Wall-Palmer, D., Wang, F., & Watt, S. F. L. Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODPExpedition 340. United States. doi:10.1002/2014GC005652.
Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., Palmer, M. R., Talling, P. J., Villemant, B., Adachi, T., Aljahdali, M., Breitkreuz, C., Brunet, M., Caron, B., Coussens, M., Deplus, C., Endo, D., Feuillet, N., Fraas, A. J., Fujinawa, A., Hart, M. B., Hatfield, R. G., Hornbach, M., Jutzeler, M., Kataoka, K. S., Komorowski, J. -C., Lebas, E., Lafuerza, S., Maeno, F., Manga, M., Martínez-Colón, M., McCanta, M., Morgan, S., Saito, T., Slagle, A., Sparks, S., Stinton, A., Stroncik, N., Subramanyam, K. S. V., Tamura, Y., Trofimovs, J., Voight, B., Wall-Palmer, D., Wang, F., and Watt, S. F. L. Tue . "Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODPExpedition 340". United States. doi:10.1002/2014GC005652. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511415.
@article{osti_1511415,
title = {Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODPExpedition 340},
author = {Le Friant, A. and Ishizuka, O. and Boudon, G. and Palmer, M. R. and Talling, P. J. and Villemant, B. and Adachi, T. and Aljahdali, M. and Breitkreuz, C. and Brunet, M. and Caron, B. and Coussens, M. and Deplus, C. and Endo, D. and Feuillet, N. and Fraas, A. J. and Fujinawa, A. and Hart, M. B. and Hatfield, R. G. and Hornbach, M. and Jutzeler, M. and Kataoka, K. S. and Komorowski, J. -C. and Lebas, E. and Lafuerza, S. and Maeno, F. and Manga, M. and Martínez-Colón, M. and McCanta, M. and Morgan, S. and Saito, T. and Slagle, A. and Sparks, S. and Stinton, A. and Stroncik, N. and Subramanyam, K. S. V. and Tamura, Y. and Trofimovs, J. and Voight, B. and Wall-Palmer, D. and Wang, F. and Watt, S. F. L.},
abstractNote = {IODP Expedition 340 successfully drilled a series of sites offshore Montserrat, Martinique and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles from March to April 2012. These are among the few drill sites gathered around volcanic islands, and the first scientific drilling of large and likely tsunamigenic volcanic island-arc landslide deposits. These cores provide evidence and tests of previous hypotheses for the composition and origin of those deposits. Sites U1394, U1399, and U1400 that penetrated landslide deposits recovered exclusively seafloor sediment, comprising mainly turbidites and hemipelagic deposits, and lacked debris avalanche deposits. This supports the concepts that i/ volcanic debris avalanches tend to stop at the slope break, and ii/ widespread and voluminous failures of preexisting low-gradient seafloor sediment can be triggered by initial emplacement of material from the volcano. Offshore Martinique (U1399 and 1400), the landslide deposits comprised blocks of parallel strata that were tilted or microfaulted, sometimes separated by intervals of homogenized sediment (intense shearing), while Site U1394 offshore Montserrat penetrated a flat-lying block of intact strata. The most likely mechanism for generating these large-scale seafloor sediment failures appears to be propagation of a decollement from proximal areas loaded and incised by a volcanic debris avalanche. These results have implications for the magnitude of tsunami generation. Under some conditions, volcanic island landslide deposits composed of mainly seafloor sediment will tend to form smaller magnitude tsunamis than equivalent volumes of subaerial block-rich mass flows rapidly entering water. Expedition 340 also successfully drilled sites to access the undisturbed record of eruption fallout layers intercalated with marine sediment which provide an outstanding high-resolution data set to analyze eruption and landslides cycles, improve understanding of magmatic evolution as well as offshore sedimentation processes.},
doi = {10.1002/2014GC005652},
journal = {Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems},
issn = {1525-2027},
number = 2,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {1}
}

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S. J.; Carey, S. N.</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Geology, Vol. 88, Issue 5</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1086/628542" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1086/628542<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/JB094iB12p17465" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1989-01-01">January 1989</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Moore, J. G.; Clague, D. A.; Holcomb, R. T.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, Issue B12</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/JB094iB12p17465" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1029/JB094iB12p17465<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL042556" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Active faulting induced by slip partitioning in Montserrat and link with volcanic activity: New insights from the 2009 GWADASEIS marine cruise data: ACTIVE FAULTING IN MONTSERRAT<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2010-04-30">April 2010</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Feuillet, Nathalie; Leclerc, Frédérique; Tapponnier, Paul</span> </li> <li> Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 19</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL042556" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1029/2010GL042556<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900450" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Landslide tsunami<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2001-06-10">June 2001</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Ward, Steven N.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 106, Issue B6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900450" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1029/2000JB900450<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000308" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Arc parallel extension and localization of volcanic complexes in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles: EXTENSIONAL ACTIVE FAULTING IN GUADELOUPE<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2002-12-01">December 2002</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Feuillet, N.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 107, Issue B12</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000308" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1029/2001JB000308<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Schnur, Susan R.; Chadwick, William W.; Embley, Robert W.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jb013742" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1002/2016jb013742<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1090-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Flank instability assessment at Kick-’em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2016-12-20">December 2016</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Dondin, F. J-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.</span> </li> <li> Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 79, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1090-8" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/s00445-016-1090-8<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (2)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted citation-search"> <label for="citation-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="citation-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-name"><label for="citation-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-date"><label for="citation-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1480776-submarine-deposits-from-pumiceous-pyroclastic-density-currents-traveling-over-water-outstanding-example-from-offshore-montserrat-iodp" itemprop="url">Submarine deposits from pumiceous pyroclastic density currents traveling over water: An outstanding example from offshore Montserrat (IODP 340)</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Jutzeler, M.</span> ; <span class="author">Manga, M.</span> ; <span class="author">White, J. D. L.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Geological Society of America, Bulletin</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Pyroclastic density currents have been observed to both enter the sea, and to travel over water for tens of kilometers. Here, we identified a 1.2-m-thick, stratified pumice lapilli-ash cored at Site U1396 offshore Montserrat (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] Expedition 340) as being the first deposit to provide evidence that it was formed by submarine deposition from pumice-rich pyroclastic density currents that traveled above the water surface. The age of the submarine deposit is ca. 4 Ma, and its magma source is similar to those for much younger Soufrière Hills deposits, indicating that the island experienced large-magnitude, sub-aerial caldera-forming explosive<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> eruptions much earlier than recorded in land deposits. The deposit's combined sedimentological characteristics are incompatible with deposition from a submarine eruption, pyroclastic fall over water, or a submarine seafloor-hugging turbidity current derived from a subaerial pyroclastic density current that entered water at the shoreline. The stratified pumice lapilli-ash unit can be subdivided into at least three depositional units, with the lowermost one being clast supported. The unit contains grains in five separate size modes and has a >12 phi range. Particles are chiefly sub-rounded pumice clasts, lithic clasts, crystal fragments, and glass shards. Pumice clasts are very poorly segregated from other particle types, and lithic clasts occur throughout the deposit; fine particles are weakly density graded. We interpret the unit to record multiple closely spaced (< 2 d) hot pyroclastic density currents that flowed over the ocean, releasing pyroclasts onto the water surface, and settling of the various pyroclasts into the water column. Our settling and hot and cold flotation experiments show that waterlogging of pumice clasts at the water surface would have been immediate. The overall poor hydraulic sorting of the deposit resulted from mixing of particles from multiple pulses of vertical settling in the water column, attesting to complex sedimentation. Slow-settling particles were deposited on the seafloor together with faster-descending particles that were delivered at the water surface by subsequent pyroclastic flows. The final sediment pulses were eventually deflected upon their arrival on the seafloor and were deposited in laterally continuous facies. This study emphasizes the interaction between products of explosive volcanism and the ocean and discusses sedimentological complexities and hydrodynamics associated with particle delivery to water.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1130/B31448.1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1480776" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1130/B31448.1</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1480776" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1480776" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1512134-rapid-onset-mafic-magmatism-facilitated-volcanic-edifice-collapse" itemprop="url">Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Cassidy, M.</span> ; <span class="author">Watt, S. F. L.</span> ; <span class="author">Talling, P. J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Geophysical Research Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6-10km <sup>3</sup>) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ~130 ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064519" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1512134" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1002/2015GL064519</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1512134" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1512134" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1480727-relationship-between-eruptive-activity-flank-collapse-sea-level-volcanic-islands-long-term-ma-record-offshore-montserrat-lesser-antilles" itemprop="url">The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Coussens, Maya</span> ; <span class="author">Wall-Palmer, Deborah</span> ; <span class="author">Talling, Peter. J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (> 1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (> 130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and volcaniclastic turbidite deposits in the drill cores reveals three heightened periods of volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat (~930 to ~900 ka, ~810 to ~760 ka, and ~190 to ~120 ka) that coincide with periods of increased volcano instability and mass-wasting. The youngest of<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> these periods marks the peak in activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano. The largest flank collapse of this volcano (~130 ka) occurred toward the end of this period, and two younger landslides also occurred during a period of relatively elevated volcanism. These three landslides represent the only large (> 0.3 km <sup>3</sup>) flank collapses of the Soufrière Hills edifice, and their timing also coincides with periods of rapid sea level rise (> 5 m/ka). Available age data from other island arc volcanoes suggest a general correlation between the timing of large landslides and periods of rapid sea level rise, but this is not observed for volcanoes in intraplate ocean settings. We furthermore infer that rapid sea level rise may modulate the timing of collapse at island arc volcanoes, but not in larger ocean-island settings.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GC006053" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1480727" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1002/2015GC006053</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1480727" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1480727" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/22075542-real-two-phase-submarine-debris-flow-tsunami" itemprop="url">A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Pudasaini, Shiva P.</span> ; <span class="author">Miller, Stephen A.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - AIP Conference Proceedings</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the submarine debris speed can be faster than the tsunami speed. This information can be useful for early warning strategies in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase our understanding of complex multi-phase systems and multi-physics and flows, and allows for the proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, and the associated applications to hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4756096" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="22075542" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1063/1.4756096</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/5064489-crustal-contamination-versus-subduction-zone-enrichment-example-from-lesser-antilles-implications-mantle-source-compositions-island-arc-volcanic-rocks" itemprop="url">Crustal contamination versus subduction zone enrichment: example from the lesser antilles and implications for mantle source compositions of island arc volcanic rocks</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Davidson, J.P.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta; (United States)</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Isotopic and geochemical data are presented from the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc. Island arc tholeiites from the northern islands are restricted in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and show large enrichments in LILE relative to other trace elements, as exemplified particularly in high Ba/La ratios. In contrast, samples from the central islands (Martinique and St. Lucia) are highly variable in isotopic and trace element ratios, and reflect overprinting of primitive island arc magma chemistry by subsequent crustal contamination. Such magmas therefore do no represent island arc mantle source characteristics. Northern Lesser Antilles arc mantle sources are<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> displaced from MORB Pb isotopic compositions towards the higher /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios characteristic of sediments. Also, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are highly restricted and distinct from those of MORB. As a result, mixing models between MORB source and subducted sediment are tightly constrained in terms of the allowable proportion of sediment. Buffering of isotopic compositions together with considerable relative LILE enrichment might be achieved by mixing between mantle and a hydrous fluid which has equilibrated with not only sediment but also a large proportion of variably altered oceanic crust. High degrees of partial melting of mantle modified by a hydrous fluid reproduce the trace element pattern of the source in the derivative volcanic rocks and account for the depletion of HFSE and HREE relative to MORB.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(87)90268-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="5064489" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1016/0016-7037(87)90268-7</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="d-none d-sm-inline" style="color:#737373;">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none mb-1"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/css/ostigov.fonts.191107.1502.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/js/ostigov.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/ostigov.biblio.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- OSTI.GOV v.191107.1502 --> </html>