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Title: First proton–proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: Measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density at $$\sqrt{s}=900$$  GeV

Abstract

On 23 rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range |η|<0.5, we obtain d N ch/dη=3. 10±0. 13(stat.)±0.22(syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and d N ch/dη=3.51±0. 15(stat.)±0. 25(syst.) for non-single diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton-antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN Spp̄S collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software ofmore » the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
The ALICE Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1511316
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 65; Journal Issue: 1-2; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Aamodt, K., Abel, N., Abeysekara, U., Abrahantes Quintana, A., Acero, A., Adamová, D., Aggarwal, M. M., Aglieri Rinella, G., Agocs, A. G., Aguilar Salazar, S., Ahammed, Z., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, N., Ahn, S. U., Akimoto, R., Akindinov, A., Aleksandrov, D., Alessandro, B., Alfaro Molina, R., Alici, A., Almaráz Aviña, E., Alme, J., Alt, T., Altini, V., Altinpinar, S., Andrei, C., Andronic, A., Anelli, G., Angelov, V., Anson, C., Antičić, T., Antinori, F., Antinori, S., Antipin, K., Antończyk, D., Antonioli, P., Anzo, A., Aphecetche, L., Appelshäuser, H., Arcelli, S., Arceo, R., Arend, A., Armesto, N., Arnaldi, R., Aronsson, T., Arsene, I. C., Asryan, A., Augustinus, A., Averbeck, R., Awes, T. C., Äystö, J., Azmi, M. D., Bablok, S., Bach, M., Badalà, A., Baek, Y. W., Bagnasco, S., Bailhache, R., Bala, R., Baldisseri, A., Baldit, A., Bán, J., Barbera, R., Barnaföldi, G. G., Barnby, L., Barret, V., Bartke, J., Barile, F., Basile, M., Basmanov, V., Bastid, N., Bathen, B., Batigne, G., Batyunya, B., Baumann, C., Bearden, I. G., Becker, B., Belikov, I., Bellwied, R., Belmont-Moreno, E., Belogianni, A., Benhabib, L., Beole, S., Berceanu, I., Bercuci, A., Berdermann, E., Berdnikov, Y., Betev, L., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bianchi, L., Bianchi, N., Bianchin, C., Bielčík, J., Bielčíková, J., Bilandzic, A., Bimbot, L., Biolcati, E., Blanc, A., Blanco, F., Blanco, F., Blau, D., Blume, C., Boccioli, M., Bock, N., Bøgdanov, A., Bøggild, H., Bogolyubsky, M., Bohm, J., Boldizsár, L., Bombara, M., Bombonati, C., Bondila, M., Borel, H., Borshchov, V., Bortolin, C., Bose, S., Bosisio, L., Bossú, F., Botje, M., Böttger, S., Bourdaud, G., Boyer, B., Braun, M., Braun-Munzinger, P., Bravina, L., Bregant, M., Breitner, T., Bruckner, G., Brun, R., Bruna, E., Bruno, G. E., Budnikov, D., Buesching, H., Bugaev, K., Buncic, P., Busch, O., Buthelezi, Z., Caffarri, D., Cai, X., Caines, H., Camacho, E., Camerini, P., Campbell, M., Canoa Roman, V., Capitani, G. P., Cara Romeo, G., Carena, F., Carena, W., Carminati, F., Casanova Díaz, A., Caselle, M., Castillo Castellanos, J., Castillo Hernandez, J. F., Catanescu, V., Cattaruzza, E., Cavicchioli, C., Cerello, P., Chambert, V., Chang, B., Chapeland, S., Charpy, A., Charvet, J. L., Chattopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Cherney, M., Cheshkov, C., Cheynis, B., Chiavassa, E., Chibante Barroso, V., Chinellato, D. D., Chochula, P., Choi, K., Chojnacki, M., Christakoglou, P., Christensen, C. H., Christiansen, P., Chujo, T., Chuman, F., Cicalo, C., Cifarelli, L., Cindolo, F., Cleymans, J., Cobanoglu, O., Coffin, J. -P., Coli, S., Colla, A., Conesa Balbastre, G., Conesa del Valle, Z., Conner, E. S., Constantin, P., Contin, G., Contreras, J. G., Corrales Morales, Y., Cormier, T. M., Cortese, P., Cortés Maldonado, I., Cosentino, M. R., Costa, F., Cotallo, M. E., Crescio, E., Crochet, P., Cuautle, E., Cunqueiro, L., Cussonneau, J., Dainese, A., Dalsgaard, H. H., Danu, A., Das, I., Das, S., Dash, A., Dash, S., de Barros, G. O. V., De Caro, A., de Cataldo, G., de Cuveland, J., De Falco, A., de Gaspari, M., de Groot, J., De Gruttola, D., de Haas, A. P., De Marco, N., de Rooij, R., De Pasquale, S., de Vaux, G., Delagrange, H., Dellacasa, G., Deloff, A., Demanov, V., Dénes, E., Deppman, A., D’Erasmo, G., Derkach, D., Devaux, A., Di Bari, D., Di Giglio, C., Di Liberto, S., Di Mauro, A., Di Nezza, P., Dialinas, M., Díaz, L., Díaz, R., Dietel, T., Ding, H., Divià, R., Djuvsland, Ø., do Amaral Valdiviesso, G., Dobretsov, V., Dobrin, A., Dobrowolski, T., Dönigus, B., Domínguez, I., Don, D. M. M., Dordic, O., Dubey, A. K., Dubuisson, J., Ducroux, L., Dupieux, P., Dutta Majumdar, A. K., Dutta Majumdar, M. R., Elia, D., Emschermann, D., Enokizono, A., Espagnon, B., Estienne, M., Evans, D., Evrard, S., Eyyubova, G., Fabjan, C. W., Fabris, D., Faivre, J., Falchieri, D., Fantoni, A., Fasel, M., Fearick, R., Fedunov, A., Fehlker, D., Fekete, V., Felea, D., Fenton-Olsen, B., Feofilov, G., Fernández Téllez, A., Ferreiro, E. G., Ferretti, A., Ferretti, R., Figueredo, M. A. S., Filchagin, S., Fini, R., Fionda, F. M., Fiore, E. M., Floris, M., Fodor, Z., Foertsch, S., Foka, P., Fokin, S., Formenti, F., Fragiacomo, E., Fragkiadakis, M., Frankenfeld, U., Frolov, A., Fuchs, U., Furano, F., Furget, C., Fusco Girard, M., Gaardhøje, J. J., Gadrat, S., Gagliardi, M., Gago, A., Gallio, M., Ganoti, P., Ganti, M. S., Garabatos, C., Garc, C., Gebelein, J., Gemme, R., Germain, M., Gheata, A., Gheata, M., Ghidini, B., Ghosh, P., Giraudo, G., Giubellino, P., Gladysz-Dziadus, E., Glasow, R., Glässel, P., Glenn, A., Gomez, R., González Santos, H., González-Trueba, L. H., González-Zamora, P., Gorbunov, S., Gorbunov, Y., Gotovac, S., Gottschlag, H., Grabski, V., Grajcarek, R., Grelli, A., Grigoras, A., Grigoras, C., Grigoriev, V., Grigoryan, A., Grinyov, B., Grion, N., Gros, P., Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F., Grossiord, J. -Y., Grosso, R., Guarnaccia, C., Guber, F., Guernane, R., Guerzoni, B., Gulbrandsen, K., Gulkanyan, H., Gunji, T., Gupta, A., Gupta, R., Gustafsson, H. -A., Gutbrod, H., Haaland, Ø., Hadjidakis, C., Haiduc, M., Hamagaki, H., Hamar, G., Hamblen, J., Han, B. H., Harris, J. W., Hartig, M., Harutyunyan, A., Hasch, D., Hasegan, D., Hatzifotiadou, D., Hayrapetyan, A., Heide, M., Heinz, M., Helstrup, H., Herghelegiu, A., Hernández, C., Herrera Corral, G., Herrmann, N., Hetland, K. F., Hicks, B., Hiei, A., Hille, P. T., Hippolyte, B., Horaguchi, T., Hori, Y., Hristov, P., Hřivnáčová, I., Hu, S., Huber, S., Humanic, T. J., Hutter, D., Hwang, D. S., Ichou, R., Ilkaev, R., Ilkiv, I., Innocenti, P. G., Ippolitov, M., Irfan, M., Ivan, C., Ivanov, A., Ivanov, M., Ivanov, V., Iwasaki, T., Jachołkowski, A., Jacobs, P. M., Jančurová, L., Jangal, S., Janik, R., Jayananda, K., Jena, C., Jena, S., Jirden, L., Jones, G. T., Jones, P. G., Jovanovi, P., Jung, H., Jung, W., Jusko, A., Kaidalov, A. B., Kalcher, S., Kali, P., Kalliokoski, T., Kalweit, A., Kamal, A., Kamermans, R., Kanaki, K., Kang, E., Kang, J. H., Kapitan, J., Kaplin, V., Kapusta, S., Karavicheva, T., Karpechev, E., Kazantsev, A., Kebschull, U., Keidel, R., Khan, M. M., Khan, S. A., Khanzadeev, A., Kharlov, Y., Kikola, D., Kileng, B., Kim, D. J., Kim, D. S., Kim, D. W., Kim, H. N., Kim, J., Kim, J. H., Kim, J. S., Kim, M., Kim, M., Kim, S. H., Kim, S., Kim, Y., Kirsch, S., Kisel, I., Kiselev, S., Kisiel, A., Klay, J. L., Klein, J., Klein, C., Kliemant, M., Klovning, A., Kluge, A., Kniege, S., Koch, K., Kolevatov, R., Kolojvari, A., Kondratiev, V., Kondratyeva, N., Konevskih, A., Kornaś, E., Kour, R., Kowalski, M., Kox, S., Kozlov, K., Kral, J., Králik, I., Kramer, F., Kraus, I., Kravčáková, A., Krawutschke, T., Krivda, M., Krumbhorn, D., Krus, M., Kryshen, E., Krzewicki, M., Kucheriaev, Y., Kuhn, C., Kuijer, P. G., Kumar, L., Kumar, N., Kupczak, R., Kurashvili, P., Kurepin, A., Kurepin, A. N., Kuryakin, A., Kushpil, S., Kushpil, V., Kutouski, M., Kvaerno, H., Kweon, M. J., Kwon, Y., La Rocca, P., Lackner, F., Ladrón de Guevara, P., Lafage, V., Lal, C., Lara, C., Larsen, D. T., Laurenti, G., Lazzeroni, C., Le Bornec, Y., Le Bris, N., Lee, H., Lee, K. S., Lee, S. C., Lefèvre, F., Lenhardt, M., Leistam, L., Lehnert, J., Lenti, V., León, H., León Monzón, I., León Vargas, H., Lévai, P., Li, Y., Lietava, R., Lindal, S., Lindenstruth, V., Lippmann, C., Lisa, M. A., Listratenko, O., Liu, L., Loginov, V., Lohn, S., Lopez, X., López Noriega, M., López-Ramírez, R., López Torres, E., Løvhøiden, G., Lozea Feijo Soares, A., Lu, S., Lunardon, M., Luparello, G., Luquin, L., Lutz, J. -R., Luvisetto, M., Ma, K., Ma, R., Madagodahettige-Don, D. M., Maevskaya, A., Mager, M., Mahajan, A., Mahapatra, D. P., Maire, A., Makhlyueva, I., Mal’Kevich, D., Malaev, M., Maldonado Cervantes, I., Malek, M., Malkiewicz, T., Malzacher, P., Mamonov, A., Manceau, L., Mangotra, L., Manko, V., Manso, F., Manzari, V., Mao, Y., Mareš, J., Margagliotti, G. V., Margotti, A., Marín, A., Martashvili, I., Martinengo, P., Martínez, M. I., Martínez Davalos, A., Martínez García, G., Maruyama, Y., Marzari Chiesa, A., Masciocchi, S., Masera, M., Masetti, M., Masoni, A., Massacrier, L., Mastromarco, M., Mastroserio, A., Matthews, Z. L., Mattos Tavares, B., Matyja, A., Mayani, D., Mazza, G., Mazzoni, M. A., Meddi, F., Menchaca-Rocha, A., Mendez Lorenzo, P., Meoni, M., Mercado Pérez, J., Mereu, P., Miake, Y., Michalon, A., Miftakhov, N., Milosevic, J., Minafra, F., Mischke, A., Miśkowiec, D., Mitu, C., Mizoguchi, K., Mlynarz, J., Mohanty, B., Molnar, L., Mondal, M. M., Montaño Zetina, L., Monteno, M., Montes, E., Morando, M., Moretto, S., Morsch, A., Moukhanova, T., Muccifora, V., Mudnic, E., Muhuri, S., Müller, H., Munhoz, M. G., Munoz, J., Musa, L., Musso, A., Nandi, B. K., Nania, R., Nappi, E., Navach, F., Navin, S., Nayak, T. K., Nazarenko, S., Nazarov, G., Nedosekin, A., Nendaz, F., Newby, J., Nianine, A., Nicassio, M., Nielsen, B. S., Nikolaev, S., Nikolic, V., Nikulin, S., Nikulin, V., Nilsen, B. S., Nilsson, M. S., Noferini, F., Nomokonov, P., Nooren, G., Novitzky, N., Nyatha, A., Nygaard, C., Nyiri, A., Nystrand, J., Ochirov, A., Odyniec, G., Oeschler, H., Oinonen, M., Okada, K., Okada, Y., Oldenburg, M., Oleniacz, J., Oppedisano, C., Orsini, F., Ortíz Velázquez, A., Ortona, G., Oskamp, C., Oskarsson, A., Osmic, F., Österman, L., Ostrowski, P., Otterlund, I., Otwinowski, J., Øvrebekk, G., Oyama, K., Ozawa, K., Pachmayer, Y., Pachr, M., Padilla, F., Pagano, P., Paić, G., Painke, F., Pajares, C., Pal, S., Pal, S. K., Palaha, A., Palmeri, A., Panse, R., Pappalardo, G. S., Park, W. J., Pastirčák, B., Pastore, C., Paticchio, V., Pavlinov, A., Pawlak, T., Peitzmann, T., Pepato, A., Pereira, H., Peressounko, D., Pérez, C., Perini, D., Perrino, D., Peryt, W., Peschek, J., Pesci, A., Peskov, V., Pestov, Y., Peters, A. J., Petráček, V., Petridis, A., Petris, M., Petrov, P., Petrovici, M., Petta, C., Peyré, J., Piano, S., Piccotti, A., Pikna, M., Pillot, P., Pinsky, L., Pitz, N., Piuz, F., Platt, R., Płoskoń, M., Pluta, J., Pocheptsov, T., Pochybova, S., Podesta Lerma, P. L. M., Poggio, F., Poghosyan, M. G., Polák, K., Polichtchouk, B., Polozov, P., Polyakov, V., Pommeresch, B., Pop, A., Posa, F., Pospíšil, V., Potukuchi, B., Pouthas, J., Prasad, S. K., Preghenella, R., Prino, F., Pruneau, C. A., Pshenichnov, I., Puddu, G., Pujahari, P., Pulvirenti, A., Punin, A., Punin, V., Putiš, M., Putschke, J., Quercigh, E., Rachevski, A., Rademakers, A., Radomski, S., Räihä, T. S., Rak, J., Rakotozafindrabe, A., Ramello, L., Ramírez Reyes, A., Rammler, M., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Räsänen, S., Rashevskaya, I., Rath, S., Read, K. F., Real, J., Redlich, K., Renfordt, R., Reolon, A. R., Reshetin, A., Rettig, F., Revol, J. -P., Reygers, K., Ricaud, H., Riccati, L., Ricci, R. A., Richter, M., Riedler, P., Riegler, W., Riggi, F., Rivetti, A., Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., Røed, K., Röhrich, D., Román López, S., Romita, R., Ronchetti, F., Rosinský, P., Rosnet, P., Rossegger, S., Rossi, A., Roukoutakis, F., Rousseau, S., Roy, C., Roy, P., Rubio-Montero, A. J., Rui, R., Rusanov, I., Russo, G., Ryabinkin, E., Rybicki, A., Sadovsky, S., Šafařík, K., Sahoo, R., Saini, J., Saiz, P., Sakata, D., Salgado, C. A., Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R., Salur, S., Samanta, T., Sambyal, S., Samsonov, V., Šándor, L., Sandoval, A., Sano, M., Sano, S., Santo, R., Santoro, R., Sarkamo, J., Saturnini, P., Scapparone, E., Scarlassara, F., Scharenberg, R. P., Schiaua, C., Schicker, R., Schindler, H., Schmidt, C., Schmidt, H. R., Schreiner, S., Schuchmann, S., Schukraft, J., Schutz, Y., Schwarz, K., Schweda, K., Scioli, G., Scomparin, E., Segato, G., Semenov, D., Senyukov, S., Seo, J., Serci, S., Serkin, L., Serradilla, E., Sevcenco, A., Sgura, I., Shabratova, G., Shahoyan, R., Sharkov, G., Sharma, N., Sharma, S., Shigaki, K., Shimomura, M., Shtejer, K., Sibiriak, Y., Siciliano, M., Sicking, E., Siddi, E., Siemiarczuk, T., Silenzi, A., Silvermyr, D., Simili, E., Simonetti, G., Singaraju, R., Singh, R., Singhal, V., Sinha, B. C., Sinha, T., Sitar, B., Sitta, M., Skaali, T. B., Skjerdal, K., Smakal, R., Smirnov, N., Snellings, R., Snow, H., Søgaard, C., Sokolov, O., Soloviev, A., Soltveit, H. K., Soltz, R., Sommer, W., Son, C. W., Son, H. S., Song, M., Soos, C., Soramel, F., Soyk, D., Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M., Srivastava, B. K., Stachel, J., Staley, F., Stan, I., Stefanek, G., Stefanini, G., Steinbeck, T., Stenlund, E., Steyn, G., Stocco, D., Stock, R., Stolpovsky, P., Strmen, P., Suaide, A. A. P., Subieta Vásquez, M. A., Sugitate, T., Suire, C., Šumbera, M., Susa, T., Swoboda, D., Symons, T. J. M., Szanto de Toledo, A., Szarka, I., Szostak, A., Szuba, M., Tadel, M., Tagridis, C., Takahara, A., Takahashi, J., Tanabe, R., Tapia Takaki, J. D., Taureg, H., Tauro, A., Tavlet, M., Tejeda Muñoz, G., Telesca, A., Terrevoli, C., Thäder, J., Tieulent, R., Tlusty, D., Toia, A., Tolyhy, T., Torcato de Matos, C., Torii, H., Torralba, G., Toscano, L., Tosello, F., Tournaire, A., Traczyk, T., Tribedy, P., Tröger, G., Truesdale, D., Trzaska, W. H., Tsiledakis, G., Tsilis, E., Tsuji, T., Tumkin, A., Turrisi, R., Turvey, A., Tveter, T. S., Tydesjö, H., Tywoniuk, K., Ulery, J., Ullaland, K., Uras, A., Urbán, J., Urciuoli, G. M., Usai, G. 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S., Willis, N., Windelband, B., Xu, C., Yang, C., Yang, H., Yasnopolsky, A., Yermia, F., Yi, J., Yin, Z., Yokoyama, H., Yoo, I. -K., Yuan, X., Yushmanov, I., Zabrodin, E., Zagreev, B., Zalite, A., Zampolli, C., Zanevsky, Yu., Zaporozhets, S., Zarochentsev, A., Závada, P., Zbroszczyk, H., Zelnicek, P., Zenin, A., Zepeda, A., Zgura, I., Zhalov, M., Zhang, X., Zhou, D., Zhou, S., Zhou, S., Zhu, J., Zichichi, A., Zinchenko, A., Zinovjev, G., Zinovjev, M., Zoccarato, Y., & Zycháček, V. First proton–proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: Measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density at $\sqrt{s}=900$  GeV. United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1227-4.
Aamodt, K., Abel, N., Abeysekara, U., Abrahantes Quintana, A., Acero, A., Adamová, D., Aggarwal, M. M., Aglieri Rinella, G., Agocs, A. G., Aguilar Salazar, S., Ahammed, Z., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, N., Ahn, S. U., Akimoto, R., Akindinov, A., Aleksandrov, D., Alessandro, B., Alfaro Molina, R., Alici, A., Almaráz Aviña, E., Alme, J., Alt, T., Altini, V., Altinpinar, S., Andrei, C., Andronic, A., Anelli, G., Angelov, V., Anson, C., Antičić, T., Antinori, F., Antinori, S., Antipin, K., Antończyk, D., Antonioli, P., Anzo, A., Aphecetche, L., Appelshäuser, H., Arcelli, S., Arceo, R., Arend, A., Armesto, N., Arnaldi, R., Aronsson, T., Arsene, I. C., Asryan, A., Augustinus, A., Averbeck, R., Awes, T. C., Äystö, J., Azmi, M. D., Bablok, S., Bach, M., Badalà, A., Baek, Y. W., Bagnasco, S., Bailhache, R., Bala, R., Baldisseri, A., Baldit, A., Bán, J., Barbera, R., Barnaföldi, G. G., Barnby, L., Barret, V., Bartke, J., Barile, F., Basile, M., Basmanov, V., Bastid, N., Bathen, B., Batigne, G., Batyunya, B., Baumann, C., Bearden, I. G., Becker, B., Belikov, I., Bellwied, R., Belmont-Moreno, E., Belogianni, A., Benhabib, L., Beole, S., Berceanu, I., Bercuci, A., Berdermann, E., Berdnikov, Y., Betev, L., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bianchi, L., Bianchi, N., Bianchin, C., Bielčík, J., Bielčíková, J., Bilandzic, A., Bimbot, L., Biolcati, E., Blanc, A., Blanco, F., Blanco, F., Blau, D., Blume, C., Boccioli, M., Bock, N., Bøgdanov, A., Bøggild, H., Bogolyubsky, M., Bohm, J., Boldizsár, L., Bombara, M., Bombonati, C., Bondila, M., Borel, H., Borshchov, V., Bortolin, C., Bose, S., Bosisio, L., Bossú, F., Botje, M., Böttger, S., Bourdaud, G., Boyer, B., Braun, M., Braun-Munzinger, P., Bravina, L., Bregant, M., Breitner, T., Bruckner, G., Brun, R., Bruna, E., Bruno, G. E., Budnikov, D., Buesching, H., Bugaev, K., Buncic, P., Busch, O., Buthelezi, Z., Caffarri, D., Cai, X., Caines, H., Camacho, E., Camerini, P., Campbell, M., Canoa Roman, V., Capitani, G. P., Cara Romeo, G., Carena, F., Carena, W., Carminati, F., Casanova Díaz, A., Caselle, M., Castillo Castellanos, J., Castillo Hernandez, J. F., Catanescu, V., Cattaruzza, E., Cavicchioli, C., Cerello, P., Chambert, V., Chang, B., Chapeland, S., Charpy, A., Charvet, J. L., Chattopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Cherney, M., Cheshkov, C., Cheynis, B., Chiavassa, E., Chibante Barroso, V., Chinellato, D. D., Chochula, P., Choi, K., Chojnacki, M., Christakoglou, P., Christensen, C. H., Christiansen, P., Chujo, T., Chuman, F., Cicalo, C., Cifarelli, L., Cindolo, F., Cleymans, J., Cobanoglu, O., Coffin, J. -P., Coli, S., Colla, A., Conesa Balbastre, G., Conesa del Valle, Z., Conner, E. S., Constantin, P., Contin, G., Contreras, J. G., Corrales Morales, Y., Cormier, T. M., Cortese, P., Cortés Maldonado, I., Cosentino, M. R., Costa, F., Cotallo, M. E., Crescio, E., Crochet, P., Cuautle, E., Cunqueiro, L., Cussonneau, J., Dainese, A., Dalsgaard, H. H., Danu, A., Das, I., Das, S., Dash, A., Dash, S., de Barros, G. O. V., De Caro, A., de Cataldo, G., de Cuveland, J., De Falco, A., de Gaspari, M., de Groot, J., De Gruttola, D., de Haas, A. P., De Marco, N., de Rooij, R., De Pasquale, S., de Vaux, G., Delagrange, H., Dellacasa, G., Deloff, A., Demanov, V., Dénes, E., Deppman, A., D’Erasmo, G., Derkach, D., Devaux, A., Di Bari, D., Di Giglio, C., Di Liberto, S., Di Mauro, A., Di Nezza, P., Dialinas, M., Díaz, L., Díaz, R., Dietel, T., Ding, H., Divià, R., Djuvsland, Ø., do Amaral Valdiviesso, G., Dobretsov, V., Dobrin, A., Dobrowolski, T., Dönigus, B., Domínguez, I., Don, D. M. M., Dordic, O., Dubey, A. K., Dubuisson, J., Ducroux, L., Dupieux, P., Dutta Majumdar, A. K., Dutta Majumdar, M. R., Elia, D., Emschermann, D., Enokizono, A., Espagnon, B., Estienne, M., Evans, D., Evrard, S., Eyyubova, G., Fabjan, C. W., Fabris, D., Faivre, J., Falchieri, D., Fantoni, A., Fasel, M., Fearick, R., Fedunov, A., Fehlker, D., Fekete, V., Felea, D., Fenton-Olsen, B., Feofilov, G., Fernández Téllez, A., Ferreiro, E. G., Ferretti, A., Ferretti, R., Figueredo, M. A. S., Filchagin, S., Fini, R., Fionda, F. M., Fiore, E. M., Floris, M., Fodor, Z., Foertsch, S., Foka, P., Fokin, S., Formenti, F., Fragiacomo, E., Fragkiadakis, M., Frankenfeld, U., Frolov, A., Fuchs, U., Furano, F., Furget, C., Fusco Girard, M., Gaardhøje, J. J., Gadrat, S., Gagliardi, M., Gago, A., Gallio, M., Ganoti, P., Ganti, M. S., Garabatos, C., Garc, C., Gebelein, J., Gemme, R., Germain, M., Gheata, A., Gheata, M., Ghidini, B., Ghosh, P., Giraudo, G., Giubellino, P., Gladysz-Dziadus, E., Glasow, R., Glässel, P., Glenn, A., Gomez, R., González Santos, H., González-Trueba, L. H., González-Zamora, P., Gorbunov, S., Gorbunov, Y., Gotovac, S., Gottschlag, H., Grabski, V., Grajcarek, R., Grelli, A., Grigoras, A., Grigoras, C., Grigoriev, V., Grigoryan, A., Grinyov, B., Grion, N., Gros, P., Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F., Grossiord, J. -Y., Grosso, R., Guarnaccia, C., Guber, F., Guernane, R., Guerzoni, B., Gulbrandsen, K., Gulkanyan, H., Gunji, T., Gupta, A., Gupta, R., Gustafsson, H. -A., Gutbrod, H., Haaland, Ø., Hadjidakis, C., Haiduc, M., Hamagaki, H., Hamar, G., Hamblen, J., Han, B. H., Harris, J. W., Hartig, M., Harutyunyan, A., Hasch, D., Hasegan, D., Hatzifotiadou, D., Hayrapetyan, A., Heide, M., Heinz, M., Helstrup, H., Herghelegiu, A., Hernández, C., Herrera Corral, G., Herrmann, N., Hetland, K. F., Hicks, B., Hiei, A., Hille, P. T., Hippolyte, B., Horaguchi, T., Hori, Y., Hristov, P., Hřivnáčová, I., Hu, S., Huber, S., Humanic, T. J., Hutter, D., Hwang, D. S., Ichou, R., Ilkaev, R., Ilkiv, I., Innocenti, P. G., Ippolitov, M., Irfan, M., Ivan, C., Ivanov, A., Ivanov, M., Ivanov, V., Iwasaki, T., Jachołkowski, A., Jacobs, P. M., Jančurová, L., Jangal, S., Janik, R., Jayananda, K., Jena, C., Jena, S., Jirden, L., Jones, G. T., Jones, P. G., Jovanovi, P., Jung, H., Jung, W., Jusko, A., Kaidalov, A. B., Kalcher, S., Kali, P., Kalliokoski, T., Kalweit, A., Kamal, A., Kamermans, R., Kanaki, K., Kang, E., Kang, J. H., Kapitan, J., Kaplin, V., Kapusta, S., Karavicheva, T., Karpechev, E., Kazantsev, A., Kebschull, U., Keidel, R., Khan, M. M., Khan, S. A., Khanzadeev, A., Kharlov, Y., Kikola, D., Kileng, B., Kim, D. J., Kim, D. S., Kim, D. W., Kim, H. N., Kim, J., Kim, J. H., Kim, J. S., Kim, M., Kim, M., Kim, S. H., Kim, S., Kim, Y., Kirsch, S., Kisel, I., Kiselev, S., Kisiel, A., Klay, J. L., Klein, J., Klein, C., Kliemant, M., Klovning, A., Kluge, A., Kniege, S., Koch, K., Kolevatov, R., Kolojvari, A., Kondratiev, V., Kondratyeva, N., Konevskih, A., Kornaś, E., Kour, R., Kowalski, M., Kox, S., Kozlov, K., Kral, J., Králik, I., Kramer, F., Kraus, I., Kravčáková, A., Krawutschke, T., Krivda, M., Krumbhorn, D., Krus, M., Kryshen, E., Krzewicki, M., Kucheriaev, Y., Kuhn, C., Kuijer, P. G., Kumar, L., Kumar, N., Kupczak, R., Kurashvili, P., Kurepin, A., Kurepin, A. N., Kuryakin, A., Kushpil, S., Kushpil, V., Kutouski, M., Kvaerno, H., Kweon, M. J., Kwon, Y., La Rocca, P., Lackner, F., Ladrón de Guevara, P., Lafage, V., Lal, C., Lara, C., Larsen, D. T., Laurenti, G., Lazzeroni, C., Le Bornec, Y., Le Bris, N., Lee, H., Lee, K. S., Lee, S. C., Lefèvre, F., Lenhardt, M., Leistam, L., Lehnert, J., Lenti, V., León, H., León Monzón, I., León Vargas, H., Lévai, P., Li, Y., Lietava, R., Lindal, S., Lindenstruth, V., Lippmann, C., Lisa, M. A., Listratenko, O., Liu, L., Loginov, V., Lohn, S., Lopez, X., López Noriega, M., López-Ramírez, R., López Torres, E., Løvhøiden, G., Lozea Feijo Soares, A., Lu, S., Lunardon, M., Luparello, G., Luquin, L., Lutz, J. -R., Luvisetto, M., Ma, K., Ma, R., Madagodahettige-Don, D. M., Maevskaya, A., Mager, M., Mahajan, A., Mahapatra, D. P., Maire, A., Makhlyueva, I., Mal’Kevich, D., Malaev, M., Maldonado Cervantes, I., Malek, M., Malkiewicz, T., Malzacher, P., Mamonov, A., Manceau, L., Mangotra, L., Manko, V., Manso, F., Manzari, V., Mao, Y., Mareš, J., Margagliotti, G. V., Margotti, A., Marín, A., Martashvili, I., Martinengo, P., Martínez, M. I., Martínez Davalos, A., Martínez García, G., Maruyama, Y., Marzari Chiesa, A., Masciocchi, S., Masera, M., Masetti, M., Masoni, A., Massacrier, L., Mastromarco, M., Mastroserio, A., Matthews, Z. L., Mattos Tavares, B., Matyja, A., Mayani, D., Mazza, G., Mazzoni, M. A., Meddi, F., Menchaca-Rocha, A., Mendez Lorenzo, P., Meoni, M., Mercado Pérez, J., Mereu, P., Miake, Y., Michalon, A., Miftakhov, N., Milosevic, J., Minafra, F., Mischke, A., Miśkowiec, D., Mitu, C., Mizoguchi, K., Mlynarz, J., Mohanty, B., Molnar, L., Mondal, M. M., Montaño Zetina, L., Monteno, M., Montes, E., Morando, M., Moretto, S., Morsch, A., Moukhanova, T., Muccifora, V., Mudnic, E., Muhuri, S., Müller, H., Munhoz, M. G., Munoz, J., Musa, L., Musso, A., Nandi, B. K., Nania, R., Nappi, E., Navach, F., Navin, S., Nayak, T. K., Nazarenko, S., Nazarov, G., Nedosekin, A., Nendaz, F., Newby, J., Nianine, A., Nicassio, M., Nielsen, B. S., Nikolaev, S., Nikolic, V., Nikulin, S., Nikulin, V., Nilsen, B. S., Nilsson, M. S., Noferini, F., Nomokonov, P., Nooren, G., Novitzky, N., Nyatha, A., Nygaard, C., Nyiri, A., Nystrand, J., Ochirov, A., Odyniec, G., Oeschler, H., Oinonen, M., Okada, K., Okada, Y., Oldenburg, M., Oleniacz, J., Oppedisano, C., Orsini, F., Ortíz Velázquez, A., Ortona, G., Oskamp, C., Oskarsson, A., Osmic, F., Österman, L., Ostrowski, P., Otterlund, I., Otwinowski, J., Øvrebekk, G., Oyama, K., Ozawa, K., Pachmayer, Y., Pachr, M., Padilla, F., Pagano, P., Paić, G., Painke, F., Pajares, C., Pal, S., Pal, S. K., Palaha, A., Palmeri, A., Panse, R., Pappalardo, G. S., Park, W. J., Pastirčák, B., Pastore, C., Paticchio, V., Pavlinov, A., Pawlak, T., Peitzmann, T., Pepato, A., Pereira, H., Peressounko, D., Pérez, C., Perini, D., Perrino, D., Peryt, W., Peschek, J., Pesci, A., Peskov, V., Pestov, Y., Peters, A. J., Petráček, V., Petridis, A., Petris, M., Petrov, P., Petrovici, M., Petta, C., Peyré, J., Piano, S., Piccotti, A., Pikna, M., Pillot, P., Pinsky, L., Pitz, N., Piuz, F., Platt, R., Płoskoń, M., Pluta, J., Pocheptsov, T., Pochybova, S., Podesta Lerma, P. L. M., Poggio, F., Poghosyan, M. G., Polák, K., Polichtchouk, B., Polozov, P., Polyakov, V., Pommeresch, B., Pop, A., Posa, F., Pospíšil, V., Potukuchi, B., Pouthas, J., Prasad, S. K., Preghenella, R., Prino, F., Pruneau, C. A., Pshenichnov, I., Puddu, G., Pujahari, P., Pulvirenti, A., Punin, A., Punin, V., Putiš, M., Putschke, J., Quercigh, E., Rachevski, A., Rademakers, A., Radomski, S., Räihä, T. S., Rak, J., Rakotozafindrabe, A., Ramello, L., Ramírez Reyes, A., Rammler, M., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Räsänen, S., Rashevskaya, I., Rath, S., Read, K. F., Real, J., Redlich, K., Renfordt, R., Reolon, A. R., Reshetin, A., Rettig, F., Revol, J. -P., Reygers, K., Ricaud, H., Riccati, L., Ricci, R. A., Richter, M., Riedler, P., Riegler, W., Riggi, F., Rivetti, A., Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., Røed, K., Röhrich, D., Román López, S., Romita, R., Ronchetti, F., Rosinský, P., Rosnet, P., Rossegger, S., Rossi, A., Roukoutakis, F., Rousseau, S., Roy, C., Roy, P., Rubio-Montero, A. J., Rui, R., Rusanov, I., Russo, G., Ryabinkin, E., Rybicki, A., Sadovsky, S., Šafařík, K., Sahoo, R., Saini, J., Saiz, P., Sakata, D., Salgado, C. A., Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R., Salur, S., Samanta, T., Sambyal, S., Samsonov, V., Šándor, L., Sandoval, A., Sano, M., Sano, S., Santo, R., Santoro, R., Sarkamo, J., Saturnini, P., Scapparone, E., Scarlassara, F., Scharenberg, R. P., Schiaua, C., Schicker, R., Schindler, H., Schmidt, C., Schmidt, H. R., Schreiner, S., Schuchmann, S., Schukraft, J., Schutz, Y., Schwarz, K., Schweda, K., Scioli, G., Scomparin, E., Segato, G., Semenov, D., Senyukov, S., Seo, J., Serci, S., Serkin, L., Serradilla, E., Sevcenco, A., Sgura, I., Shabratova, G., Shahoyan, R., Sharkov, G., Sharma, N., Sharma, S., Shigaki, K., Shimomura, M., Shtejer, K., Sibiriak, Y., Siciliano, M., Sicking, E., Siddi, E., Siemiarczuk, T., Silenzi, A., Silvermyr, D., Simili, E., Simonetti, G., Singaraju, R., Singh, R., Singhal, V., Sinha, B. C., Sinha, T., Sitar, B., Sitta, M., Skaali, T. B., Skjerdal, K., Smakal, R., Smirnov, N., Snellings, R., Snow, H., Søgaard, C., Sokolov, O., Soloviev, A., Soltveit, H. K., Soltz, R., Sommer, W., Son, C. W., Son, H. S., Song, M., Soos, C., Soramel, F., Soyk, D., Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M., Srivastava, B. K., Stachel, J., Staley, F., Stan, I., Stefanek, G., Stefanini, G., Steinbeck, T., Stenlund, E., Steyn, G., Stocco, D., Stock, R., Stolpovsky, P., Strmen, P., Suaide, A. A. 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S., Willis, N., Windelband, B., Xu, C., Yang, C., Yang, H., Yasnopolsky, A., Yermia, F., Yi, J., Yin, Z., Yokoyama, H., Yoo, I. -K., Yuan, X., Yushmanov, I., Zabrodin, E., Zagreev, B., Zalite, A., Zampolli, C., Zanevsky, Yu., Zaporozhets, S., Zarochentsev, A., Závada, P., Zbroszczyk, H., Zelnicek, P., Zenin, A., Zepeda, A., Zgura, I., Zhalov, M., Zhang, X., Zhou, D., Zhou, S., Zhou, S., Zhu, J., Zichichi, A., Zinchenko, A., Zinovjev, G., Zinovjev, M., Zoccarato, Y., and Zycháček, V. Fri . "First proton–proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: Measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density at $\sqrt{s}=900$  GeV". United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1227-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511316.
@article{osti_1511316,
title = {First proton–proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: Measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density at $\sqrt{s}=900$  GeV},
author = {Aamodt, K. and Abel, N. and Abeysekara, U. and Abrahantes Quintana, A. and Acero, A. and Adamová, D. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Aglieri Rinella, G. and Agocs, A. G. and Aguilar Salazar, S. and Ahammed, Z. and Ahmad, A. and Ahmad, N. and Ahn, S. U. and Akimoto, R. and Akindinov, A. and Aleksandrov, D. and Alessandro, B. and Alfaro Molina, R. and Alici, A. and Almaráz Aviña, E. and Alme, J. and Alt, T. and Altini, V. and Altinpinar, S. and Andrei, C. and Andronic, A. and Anelli, G. and Angelov, V. and Anson, C. and Antičić, T. and Antinori, F. and Antinori, S. and Antipin, K. and Antończyk, D. and Antonioli, P. and Anzo, A. and Aphecetche, L. and Appelshäuser, H. and Arcelli, S. and Arceo, R. and Arend, A. and Armesto, N. and Arnaldi, R. and Aronsson, T. and Arsene, I. C. and Asryan, A. and Augustinus, A. and Averbeck, R. and Awes, T. C. and Äystö, J. and Azmi, M. D. and Bablok, S. and Bach, M. and Badalà, A. and Baek, Y. W. and Bagnasco, S. and Bailhache, R. and Bala, R. and Baldisseri, A. and Baldit, A. and Bán, J. and Barbera, R. and Barnaföldi, G. G. and Barnby, L. and Barret, V. and Bartke, J. and Barile, F. and Basile, M. and Basmanov, V. and Bastid, N. and Bathen, B. and Batigne, G. and Batyunya, B. and Baumann, C. and Bearden, I. G. and Becker, B. and Belikov, I. and Bellwied, R. and Belmont-Moreno, E. and Belogianni, A. and Benhabib, L. and Beole, S. and Berceanu, I. and Bercuci, A. and Berdermann, E. and Berdnikov, Y. and Betev, L. and Bhasin, A. and Bhati, A. K. and Bianchi, L. and Bianchi, N. and Bianchin, C. and Bielčík, J. and Bielčíková, J. and Bilandzic, A. and Bimbot, L. and Biolcati, E. and Blanc, A. and Blanco, F. and Blanco, F. and Blau, D. and Blume, C. and Boccioli, M. and Bock, N. and Bøgdanov, A. and Bøggild, H. and Bogolyubsky, M. and Bohm, J. and Boldizsár, L. and Bombara, M. and Bombonati, C. and Bondila, M. and Borel, H. and Borshchov, V. and Bortolin, C. and Bose, S. and Bosisio, L. and Bossú, F. and Botje, M. and Böttger, S. and Bourdaud, G. and Boyer, B. and Braun, M. and Braun-Munzinger, P. and Bravina, L. and Bregant, M. and Breitner, T. and Bruckner, G. and Brun, R. and Bruna, E. and Bruno, G. E. and Budnikov, D. and Buesching, H. and Bugaev, K. and Buncic, P. and Busch, O. and Buthelezi, Z. and Caffarri, D. and Cai, X. and Caines, H. and Camacho, E. and Camerini, P. and Campbell, M. and Canoa Roman, V. and Capitani, G. 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abstractNote = {On 23rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range |η|<0.5, we obtain dNch/dη=3. 10±0. 13(stat.)±0.22(syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and dNch/dη=3.51±0. 15(stat.)±0. 25(syst.) for non-single diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton-antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN Spp̄S collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software of the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.},
doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1227-4},
journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},
issn = {1434-6044},
number = 1-2,
volume = 65,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {12}
}

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