skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Tunable charge to spin conversion in strontium iridate thin films

Abstract

Efficient charge to spin conversion is important for low-power spin logic devices. Spin and charge interconversion is commonly performed using heavy metals and topological insulators, while the field of oxides is not yet fully explored. Strontium iridate thin films were grown, where the different crystal structures form a perfect playground to understand the key factors in obtaining high charge to spin conversion efficiency (i.e.,large spin Hall angle). It was found that the semiconducting Sr 2IrO 4 has a spin Hall angle of ~0.1 (depending on measurement technique), which is promising for a spin-orbit coupled electronic system and comparable to Pt. In contrast, the perovskite SrIrO 3, reported to have a Dirac cone near the Fermi level, has a larger spin Hall angle of 0.3–0.4 degrees. The largest difference between the two materials is a large degree of spin-momentum locking in SrIrO 3, comparable to known topological insulators. A simple semiclassical relationship is found where thespin Hall angle increases for higher degrees of spin-momentum locking and it also increases for lower Fermi wave vectors. Here this relationship is then able to explain the decreased spin Hall angle below 10 nm film thickness in SrIrO 3, by relating it to the correspondinglymore » higher carrier concentration (related to the higher Fermi wavevector). Breaking the commonly believed anticorrelation between resistivity and carrier concentration paves apathway to lower power losses due to resistance while keeping large spin Hall angles.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [5];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  5. Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States)
  6. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1510784
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1510835; OSTI ID: 1526602
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2475-9953
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Everhardt, Arnoud S., DC, Mahendra, Huang, Xiaoxi, Sayed, Shehrin, Gosavi, Tanay A., Tang, Yunlong, Lin, Chia -Ching, Manipatruni, Sasikanth, Young, Ian A., Datta, Supriyo, Wang, Jian -Ping, and Ramesh, Ramamoorthy. Tunable charge to spin conversion in strontium iridate thin films. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.051201.
Everhardt, Arnoud S., DC, Mahendra, Huang, Xiaoxi, Sayed, Shehrin, Gosavi, Tanay A., Tang, Yunlong, Lin, Chia -Ching, Manipatruni, Sasikanth, Young, Ian A., Datta, Supriyo, Wang, Jian -Ping, & Ramesh, Ramamoorthy. Tunable charge to spin conversion in strontium iridate thin films. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.051201.
Everhardt, Arnoud S., DC, Mahendra, Huang, Xiaoxi, Sayed, Shehrin, Gosavi, Tanay A., Tang, Yunlong, Lin, Chia -Ching, Manipatruni, Sasikanth, Young, Ian A., Datta, Supriyo, Wang, Jian -Ping, and Ramesh, Ramamoorthy. Mon . "Tunable charge to spin conversion in strontium iridate thin films". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.051201. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1510784.
@article{osti_1510784,
title = {Tunable charge to spin conversion in strontium iridate thin films},
author = {Everhardt, Arnoud S. and DC, Mahendra and Huang, Xiaoxi and Sayed, Shehrin and Gosavi, Tanay A. and Tang, Yunlong and Lin, Chia -Ching and Manipatruni, Sasikanth and Young, Ian A. and Datta, Supriyo and Wang, Jian -Ping and Ramesh, Ramamoorthy},
abstractNote = {Efficient charge to spin conversion is important for low-power spin logic devices. Spin and charge interconversion is commonly performed using heavy metals and topological insulators, while the field of oxides is not yet fully explored. Strontium iridate thin films were grown, where the different crystal structures form a perfect playground to understand the key factors in obtaining high charge to spin conversion efficiency (i.e.,large spin Hall angle). It was found that the semiconducting Sr2IrO4 has a spin Hall angle of ~0.1 (depending on measurement technique), which is promising for a spin-orbit coupled electronic system and comparable to Pt. In contrast, the perovskite SrIrO3, reported to have a Dirac cone near the Fermi level, has a larger spin Hall angle of 0.3–0.4 degrees. The largest difference between the two materials is a large degree of spin-momentum locking in SrIrO3, comparable to known topological insulators. A simple semiclassical relationship is found where thespin Hall angle increases for higher degrees of spin-momentum locking and it also increases for lower Fermi wave vectors. Here this relationship is then able to explain the decreased spin Hall angle below 10 nm film thickness in SrIrO3, by relating it to the correspondingly higher carrier concentration (related to the higher Fermi wavevector). Breaking the commonly believed anticorrelation between resistivity and carrier concentration paves apathway to lower power losses due to resistance while keeping large spin Hall angles.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.051201},
journal = {Physical Review Materials},
issn = {2475-9953},
number = 5,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Spin-Torque Switching with the Giant Spin Hall Effect of Tantalum
journal, May 2012


Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers
journal, February 2014

  • Skinner, T. D.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4864399

Scalable energy-efficient magnetoelectric spin–orbit logic
journal, December 2018


Direct electronic measurement of the spin Hall effect
journal, July 2006


Correlated Quantum Phenomena in the Strong Spin-Orbit Regime
journal, March 2014


Advances in magnetoelectric multiferroics
journal, February 2019


Electrical Detection of Spin-Polarized Surface States Conduction in (Bi 0.53 Sb 0.47 ) 2 Te 3 Topological Insulator
journal, August 2014

  • Tang, Jianshi; Chang, Li-Te; Kou, Xufeng
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl5026198

Novel spin-orbit coupling driven emergent states in iridate-based heterostructures
journal, May 2019


Giant Spin Pumping and Inverse Spin Hall Effect in the Presence of Surface and Bulk Spin−Orbit Coupling of Topological Insulator Bi 2 Se 3
journal, September 2015


Tunable semimetallic state in compressive-strained SrIr O 3 films revealed by transport behavior
journal, January 2015


Direct observation of the Dirac nodes lifting in semimetallic perovskite SrIrO3 thin films
journal, July 2016

  • Liu, Z. T.; Li, M. Y.; Li, Q. F.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep30309

Detection and quantification of inverse spin Hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers
journal, December 2010


Pulsed laser deposition of La 1− x Sr x MnO 3 : thin-film properties and spintronic applications
journal, December 2013


Unveiling the mechanisms of the spin Hall effect in Ta
journal, August 2018


Thickness-dependent bulk properties and weak antilocalization effect in topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3
journal, August 2011


Layer thickness dependence of the current-induced effective field vector in Ta|CoFeB|MgO
journal, December 2012

  • Kim, Junyeon; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Hayashi, Masamitsu
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3522

Spin-Torque Ferromagnetic Resonance Induced by the Spin Hall Effect
journal, January 2011


SkyLogic—A Proposal for a Skyrmion-Based Logic Device
journal, April 2019

  • Mankalale, Meghna G.; Zhao, Zhengyang; Wang, Jian-Ping
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 66, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TED.2019.2899263

Room-temperature high spin–orbit torque due to quantum confinement in sputtered BixSe(1–x) films
journal, July 2018


Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
journal, July 2014

  • Mellnik, A. R.; Lee, J. S.; Richardella, A.
  • Nature, Vol. 511, Issue 7510
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13534

Experimental demonstration of the coexistence of spin Hall and Rashba effects in β tantalum/ferromagnet bilayers
journal, April 2015


Room-Temperature Reversible Spin Hall Effect
journal, April 2007


Room Temperature Electrical Detection of Spin Polarized Currents in Topological Insulators
journal, November 2015


Electrical detection of charge-current-induced spin polarization due to spin-momentum locking in Bi2Se3
journal, February 2014

  • Li, C. H.; van ‘t Erve, O. M. J.; Robinson, J. T.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.16

Semimetal and Topological Insulator in Perovskite Iridates
journal, March 2012


Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors
journal, December 2004


Spin-to-charge conversion using Rashba coupling at the interface between non-magnetic materials
journal, December 2013

  • Sánchez, J. C. Rojas; Vila, L.; Desfonds, G.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3944

Observation of the inverse spin Hall effect in silicon
journal, January 2012

  • Ando, Kazuya; Saitoh, Eiji
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1640

Beyond CMOS computing with spin and polarization
journal, April 2018


Switching of charge-current-induced spin polarization in the topological insulator BiSbTeSe 2
journal, August 2016


Epitaxial BiFeO3 Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures
journal, March 2003


CoMET: Composite-Input Magnetoelectric- Based Logic Technology
journal, December 2017

  • Mankalale, Meghna G.; Liang, Zhaoxin; Zhao, Zhengyang
  • IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits, Vol. 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/JXCDC.2017.2690629

Interplay of Spin-Orbit Interactions, Dimensionality, and Octahedral Rotations in Semimetallic SrIrO 3
journal, January 2015


Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3
journal, August 2004

  • Haeni, J. H.; Irvin, P.; Chang, W.
  • Nature, Vol. 430, Issue 7001, p. 758-761
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature02773

Spin-polarized tunneling study of spin-momentum locking in topological insulators
journal, June 2015


Spin-orbit torque magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction
journal, January 2014

  • Cubukcu, Murat; Boulle, Olivier; Drouard, Marc
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4863407

Tuning electronic structure via epitaxial strain in Sr 2 IrO 4 thin films
journal, April 2013

  • Nichols, J.; Terzic, J.; Bittle, E. G.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4801877

Novel J eff = 1 / 2 Mott State Induced by Relativistic Spin-Orbit Coupling in Sr 2 IrO 4
journal, August 2008


Highly efficient and tunable spin-to-charge conversion through Rashba coupling at oxide interfaces
journal, August 2016

  • Lesne, E.; Fu, Yu; Oyarzun, S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4726

Two-terminal spin–orbit torque magnetoresistive random access memory
journal, September 2018


Rare-earth nickelates R NiO 3 : thin films and heterostructures
journal, February 2018


Intrinsic spin Hall effect and orbital Hall effect in 4 d and 5 d transition metals
journal, April 2008


Multi-Terminal Spin Valve on Channels with Spin-Momentum Locking
journal, October 2016

  • Sayed, Shehrin; Hong, Seokmin; Datta, Supriyo
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep35658

Transmission-Line Model for Materials with Spin-Momentum Locking
journal, November 2018


Mapping the chemical potential dependence of current-induced spin polarization in a topological insulator
journal, October 2015

  • Lee, Joon Sue; Richardella, Anthony; Hickey, Danielle Reifsnyder
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 92, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.155312

Simultaneous Enhancement of Electrical Conductivity and Thermopower of Bi 2 Te 3 by Multifunctionality of Native Defects
journal, May 2015


Topological Surface States Originated Spin-Orbit Torques in Bi 2 Se 3
journal, June 2015


Electrical injection and detection of spin-polarized currents in topological insulator Bi2Te2Se
journal, September 2015

  • Tian, Jifa; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Hong, Seokmin
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep14293

Metal insulator transitions in perovskite SrIrO 3 thin films
journal, December 2014

  • Biswas, Abhijit; Kim, Ki-Seok; Jeong, Yoon Hee
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4903314

Theory of Large Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in Iridate Semimetals
journal, May 2018


Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance
journal, April 2013


Spin transfer torque devices utilizing the giant spin Hall effect of tungsten
journal, September 2012

  • Pai, Chi-Feng; Liu, Luqiao; Li, Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4753947

Compressive strain-induced metal–insulator transition in orthorhombic SrIrO 3 thin films
journal, October 2014

  • Gruenewald, John H.; Nichols, John; Terzic, Jasminka
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 29, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2014.288

Hf thickness dependence of spin-orbit torques in Hf/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures
journal, May 2016

  • Ramaswamy, Rajagopalan; Qiu, Xuepeng; Dutta, Tanmay
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4951674

Origin of fieldlike spin-orbit torques in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide thin film heterostructures
journal, October 2016


Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic Bi Fe O 3 thin films through La and Nb codoping
journal, March 2008