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Title: Technology solutions to mitigate electricity cost for electric vehicle DC fast charging

Abstract

Widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles is being hindered by high vehicle costs and refueling or range limitations. For plug-in electric vehicles, direct-current fast charging (DCFC) is proposed as a solution to support long-distance travel and relieve range anxiety. However, DCFC has also been shown to be potentially more expensive compared to residential or workplace charging. In particular, electricity demand charges can significantly impact electricity cost for fast charging applications. Here we explore technological solutions that can help reduce the electricity cost for electric vehicle fast charging. In particular, we consider thousands of electricity rates available in the United States and real-world vehicle charging load scenarios to assess opportunities to reduce the cost of DCFC by deploying solar photovoltaics (PV) panels and energy storage (battery), and implementing a co-location configuration where a DCFC station is connected to an existing meter within a commercial building. Results show that while the median electricity cost across more than 7000 commercial retail rates remains less than $0.20/kWh for all charging load scenarios considered, cost varies greatly, and some locations do experience significantly higher electricity cost. Co-location is almost always economically viable to mitigate fixed cost and demand charges, but the relative benefit of co-locatingmore » diminishes as station size and utilization increase. Energy storage alone can help mitigate demand charges and is more effective at reducing costs for 'peaky' or low-utilization loads. On the other hand, PV systems primarily help mitigate energy charges, and are more effective for loads that are more correlated with solar production, even in areas with lower solar resource. PV and energy storage can deploy synergistically to provide cost reductions for DCFC, leveraging their ability to mitigate demand and energy charges.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1507680
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1547632
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-70540
Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 242; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; electricity rates; retail rates; electric vehicles; distributed energy; DC fast charging

Citation Formats

Muratori, Matteo, Elgqvist, Emma M, Cutler, Dylan S, Eichman, Joshua D, Salisbury, Shawn, Fuller, Zachary, and Smart, John. Technology solutions to mitigate electricity cost for electric vehicle DC fast charging. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.03.061.
Muratori, Matteo, Elgqvist, Emma M, Cutler, Dylan S, Eichman, Joshua D, Salisbury, Shawn, Fuller, Zachary, & Smart, John. Technology solutions to mitigate electricity cost for electric vehicle DC fast charging. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.03.061.
Muratori, Matteo, Elgqvist, Emma M, Cutler, Dylan S, Eichman, Joshua D, Salisbury, Shawn, Fuller, Zachary, and Smart, John. Sat . "Technology solutions to mitigate electricity cost for electric vehicle DC fast charging". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.03.061.
@article{osti_1507680,
title = {Technology solutions to mitigate electricity cost for electric vehicle DC fast charging},
author = {Muratori, Matteo and Elgqvist, Emma M and Cutler, Dylan S and Eichman, Joshua D and Salisbury, Shawn and Fuller, Zachary and Smart, John},
abstractNote = {Widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles is being hindered by high vehicle costs and refueling or range limitations. For plug-in electric vehicles, direct-current fast charging (DCFC) is proposed as a solution to support long-distance travel and relieve range anxiety. However, DCFC has also been shown to be potentially more expensive compared to residential or workplace charging. In particular, electricity demand charges can significantly impact electricity cost for fast charging applications. Here we explore technological solutions that can help reduce the electricity cost for electric vehicle fast charging. In particular, we consider thousands of electricity rates available in the United States and real-world vehicle charging load scenarios to assess opportunities to reduce the cost of DCFC by deploying solar photovoltaics (PV) panels and energy storage (battery), and implementing a co-location configuration where a DCFC station is connected to an existing meter within a commercial building. Results show that while the median electricity cost across more than 7000 commercial retail rates remains less than $0.20/kWh for all charging load scenarios considered, cost varies greatly, and some locations do experience significantly higher electricity cost. Co-location is almost always economically viable to mitigate fixed cost and demand charges, but the relative benefit of co-locating diminishes as station size and utilization increase. Energy storage alone can help mitigate demand charges and is more effective at reducing costs for 'peaky' or low-utilization loads. On the other hand, PV systems primarily help mitigate energy charges, and are more effective for loads that are more correlated with solar production, even in areas with lower solar resource. PV and energy storage can deploy synergistically to provide cost reductions for DCFC, leveraging their ability to mitigate demand and energy charges.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.03.061},
journal = {Applied Energy},
issn = {0306-2619},
number = C,
volume = 242,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

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This content will become publicly available on March 16, 2020
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