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Title: Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins

Abstract

Irrigation modulates the terrestrial water budget, especially in intensively irrigated regions such as Indian sub-continent river basins, where 35% of agricultural land has been irrigated during 2010. Here, we investigate the impact of irrigation on water budget components and land surface temperature (LST), as well as seasonal and annual trends of irrigation water demand in response to climate variability over the Indian sub-continental region. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme (VIC-IRR) to represent the irrigation activities. The VIC-IRR model was calibrated and evaluated against in-situ and remote sensing observations including streamflow from India-Water Resource Information System (WRIS), Terrestrial Water Storage Change (TWSC) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), LST from Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and observed gravimetric soil moisture data from India Meteorology Department (IMD). We conducted two simulations (i.e., with and without irrigation) over 18 Indian sub-continental basins at 0.25° spatial resolution from 1951 to 2012. The comparison between the two simulations indicates that as a result of irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET) increases in all the basins. We find that mean annual ET of Indus and Ganges basins increases by 47% and 12%, respectively due to irrigation. After irrigation, basin averagedmore » total runoff (TR) was increased in the most irrigated basins (i.e., Sabarmati, Ganges, and Indus) by 4.62%, 11.87% and 7.06% in the monsoon, pre-monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The land surface temperature was cooled down in range of 0.2-0.65 °C in the Indian sub-continental basins especially in Ganges and Indus basins. Compare to other basins; irrigation water demand was high in Indus and Ganges basins during the post-monsoon season. Using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall trend test we find that in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons over the study period, irrigation demand decreased by 8.25 mm/year in 13 basins. Whereas for the post-monsoon season, irrigation water demand increased in 12 out of the 18 basins. Changes in irrigation demands are largely driven by changes in soil moisture due to decline in the summer monsoon precipitation.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar India
  2. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1506692
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-133951
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Shah, Harsh L., Zhou, Tian, Huang, Maoyi, and Mishra, Vimal. Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JD029132.
Shah, Harsh L., Zhou, Tian, Huang, Maoyi, & Mishra, Vimal. Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029132.
Shah, Harsh L., Zhou, Tian, Huang, Maoyi, and Mishra, Vimal. Tue . "Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029132.
@article{osti_1506692,
title = {Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins},
author = {Shah, Harsh L. and Zhou, Tian and Huang, Maoyi and Mishra, Vimal},
abstractNote = {Irrigation modulates the terrestrial water budget, especially in intensively irrigated regions such as Indian sub-continent river basins, where 35% of agricultural land has been irrigated during 2010. Here, we investigate the impact of irrigation on water budget components and land surface temperature (LST), as well as seasonal and annual trends of irrigation water demand in response to climate variability over the Indian sub-continental region. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme (VIC-IRR) to represent the irrigation activities. The VIC-IRR model was calibrated and evaluated against in-situ and remote sensing observations including streamflow from India-Water Resource Information System (WRIS), Terrestrial Water Storage Change (TWSC) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), LST from Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and observed gravimetric soil moisture data from India Meteorology Department (IMD). We conducted two simulations (i.e., with and without irrigation) over 18 Indian sub-continental basins at 0.25° spatial resolution from 1951 to 2012. The comparison between the two simulations indicates that as a result of irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET) increases in all the basins. We find that mean annual ET of Indus and Ganges basins increases by 47% and 12%, respectively due to irrigation. After irrigation, basin averaged total runoff (TR) was increased in the most irrigated basins (i.e., Sabarmati, Ganges, and Indus) by 4.62%, 11.87% and 7.06% in the monsoon, pre-monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The land surface temperature was cooled down in range of 0.2-0.65 °C in the Indian sub-continental basins especially in Ganges and Indus basins. Compare to other basins; irrigation water demand was high in Indus and Ganges basins during the post-monsoon season. Using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall trend test we find that in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons over the study period, irrigation demand decreased by 8.25 mm/year in 13 basins. Whereas for the post-monsoon season, irrigation water demand increased in 12 out of the 18 basins. Changes in irrigation demands are largely driven by changes in soil moisture due to decline in the summer monsoon precipitation.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JD029132},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 3,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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