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Title: Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters

Abstract

An extensive series of evaluations have been performed as part of an IAEA coordinated research project to study a set of nuclear reactions that produce the diagnostic gamma-ray emitting radionuclides Cr- 51, Tc- 99m, In- 111, I-123 and Tl- 201. Recommended cross-section data in the form of excitation functions have been derived, along with quantifications of their uncertainties. These evaluations compiled the compilation of all previously published values and newly measured experimental data, followed by critical assessments and selection of those experimental datasets and accompanying uncertainties judged to be fully valid and statistically consistent for model-independent least-squares fitting by means of Pade approximations. Integral yields as a function of the energy were also calculated on the basis of the recommended cross sections deduced from these various fits. All evaluated numerical conclusions and their corresponding uncertainties are available online at www-nds.iaea.org/medical/gamma_emitters.html and also on the medical portal of the International Atomic Energy Agency/Nuclear Data Section (IAEA-NDS) www-nds.iaea.org/medportal

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [6];  [15];  [1];  [4]
  1. Inst. of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary)
  2. Leypunsky Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)
  3. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)
  4. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)
  5. Aeronautics Inst. of Technology (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)
  6. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  7. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  8. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  9. Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
  10. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  11. Government College Univ., Lahore (Pakistan)
  12. Nuclear Physics Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)
  13. Horia Hulubei National Inst. for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Măgurele (Romania)
  14. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokaimura (Japan)
  15. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (India)
  16. Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1506420
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 319; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0236-5731
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; Cross-section evaluation; Diagnostic medical isotopes; IAEA Coordinated Research Project; Pade fit; Recommended sigma- and yield data; Uncertainty estimation; gamma-ray emitters

Citation Formats

Tárkányi, F. T., Ignatyuk, A. V., Hermanne, A., Capote, Roberto, Carlson, B. V., Engle, J. W., Kellett, M. A., Kibedi, T., Kim, G. N., Kondev, F. G., Hussain, M., Lebeda, O., Luca, A., Nagai, Y., Naik, H., Nichols, A. L., Nortier, F. M., Suryanarayana, S. V., Takács, S., and Verpelli, M. Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10967-018-6142-4.
Tárkányi, F. T., Ignatyuk, A. V., Hermanne, A., Capote, Roberto, Carlson, B. V., Engle, J. W., Kellett, M. A., Kibedi, T., Kim, G. N., Kondev, F. G., Hussain, M., Lebeda, O., Luca, A., Nagai, Y., Naik, H., Nichols, A. L., Nortier, F. M., Suryanarayana, S. V., Takács, S., & Verpelli, M. Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters. United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-018-6142-4.
Tárkányi, F. T., Ignatyuk, A. V., Hermanne, A., Capote, Roberto, Carlson, B. V., Engle, J. W., Kellett, M. A., Kibedi, T., Kim, G. N., Kondev, F. G., Hussain, M., Lebeda, O., Luca, A., Nagai, Y., Naik, H., Nichols, A. L., Nortier, F. M., Suryanarayana, S. V., Takács, S., and Verpelli, M. Wed . "Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters". United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-018-6142-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1506420.
@article{osti_1506420,
title = {Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic gamma emitters},
author = {Tárkányi, F. T. and Ignatyuk, A. V. and Hermanne, A. and Capote, Roberto and Carlson, B. V. and Engle, J. W. and Kellett, M. A. and Kibedi, T. and Kim, G. N. and Kondev, F. G. and Hussain, M. and Lebeda, O. and Luca, A. and Nagai, Y. and Naik, H. and Nichols, A. L. and Nortier, F. M. and Suryanarayana, S. V. and Takács, S. and Verpelli, M.},
abstractNote = {An extensive series of evaluations have been performed as part of an IAEA coordinated research project to study a set of nuclear reactions that produce the diagnostic gamma-ray emitting radionuclides Cr-51, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123 and Tl-201. Recommended cross-section data in the form of excitation functions have been derived, along with quantifications of their uncertainties. These evaluations compiled the compilation of all previously published values and newly measured experimental data, followed by critical assessments and selection of those experimental datasets and accompanying uncertainties judged to be fully valid and statistically consistent for model-independent least-squares fitting by means of Pade approximations. Integral yields as a function of the energy were also calculated on the basis of the recommended cross sections deduced from these various fits. All evaluated numerical conclusions and their corresponding uncertainties are available online at www-nds.iaea.org/medical/gamma_emitters.html and also on the medical portal of the International Atomic Energy Agency/Nuclear Data Section (IAEA-NDS) www-nds.iaea.org/medportal},
doi = {10.1007/s10967-018-6142-4},
journal = {Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry},
issn = {0236-5731},
number = 2,
volume = 319,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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Total (p, n) reaction cross section study on51V over the incident energy range 1·56 to 5·53 MeV
journal, October 1977

  • Mehta, M. K.; Kailas, S.; Sekharan, K. K.
  • Pramana, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02846247

Results on the cross-section of238U-fission induced by low-energy monoenergetic γ-rays
journal, July 1966

  • Manfredini, A.; Muchnik, M.; Fiore, L.
  • Il Nuovo Cimento B Series 10, Vol. 44, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02710442

Nuclear data evaluation methodology including estimates of covariances
journal, January 2010


( p ,   n ) Cross Sections at 6.75 MeV
journal, May 1963


On the depth-dependent production of radionuclides (44≤A≤59) by solar protons in extraterrestrial matter
journal, September 1980

  • Michel, R.; Brinkmann, G.
  • Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 59, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02517298

Experimental studies on the proton-induced activation reactions of molybdenum in the energy range 22–67MeV
journal, June 2004


Cyclotron production of 99mTc: Experimental measurement of the 100Mo(p,x)99Mo, 99mTc and 99gTc excitation functions from 8 to 18 MeV
journal, August 2011


The V51(p,n)Cr51 reaction as a neutron source of known intensity
journal, March 1965


Exploring the multihumped fission barrier of 238 U via sub-barrier photofission
journal, April 2013


Production of chromium-48 for applications in life sciences
journal, April 1980

  • Weinreich, R.; Probst, H. J.; Qaim, S. M.
  • The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0020-708X(80)90112-X

Experimental determination of k 0 , Q 0 , $$ \bar{E}_{r} $$ factors and neutron cross-sections for 41 isotopes of interest in Neutron Activation Analysis
journal, August 2012

  • Farina Arboccò, F.; Vermaercke, P.; Smits, K.
  • Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 296, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10967-012-2132-0

Production of 201Tl and 203Pb via proton induced nuclear reactions on natural thallium
journal, February 1979

  • Qaim, S. M.; Weinreich, R.; Ollig, H.
  • The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0020-708X(79)90138-8

Resonant Photonuclear Reactions for Isotope Transmutation
journal, September 2011

  • Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Shima, Tatsushi; Miyamoto, Shuji
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 80, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.80.094202

Excitation functions of some neutron threshold reactions on isotopes of molybdenum
journal, March 1985


Alpha and deuteron induced reactions on vanadium
journal, April 1993

  • Sonzogni, A. A.; Romo, A. S. M. A.; Mosca, H. O.
  • Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Articles, Vol. 170, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02134585

Average neutron resonance parameters and radiative capture cross sectins for the isotopes of molybdenum
journal, October 1976


Investigation of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on vanadium up to 40MeV
journal, August 2011

  • Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 269, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.05.003

Cross-Section Measurements of Reactions Induced by Neutrons of 14.5 Mev. Energy
journal, February 1953

  • Paul, E. B.; Clarke, R. L.
  • Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 31, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1139/p53-028

[Mo‐99の(n,γ)法による生成量の評価]<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1979-01-01">January 1979</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Kenichi</span> </li> <li> Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan / Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Vol. 21, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3327/jaesj.21.505" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.3327/jaesj.21.505<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.501" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name"><math display="inline"> <mrow> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal">U</mi> </mrow> <mprescripts/> <mrow/> <mrow> <mn>238</mn> </mrow> <mrow/> <mrow/> </mmultiscripts> </mrow> </math> and <math display="inline"> <mrow> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal">Th</mi> </mrow> <mprescripts/> <mrow/> <mrow> <mn>232</mn> </mrow> <mrow/> <mrow/> </mmultiscripts> </mrow> </math> Photofission and Photoneutron Emission near Threshold<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1975-08-01">August 1975</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Dickey, P. A.; Axel, P.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 8</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.501" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.501<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (127)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <label for="reference-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="reference-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-name"><label for="reference-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-date"><label for="reference-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1493706-recommended-nuclear-data-production-selected-therapeutic-radionuclides" itemprop="url">Recommended Nuclear Data for the Production of Selected Therapeutic Radionuclides</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Engle, J. W.</span> ; <span class="author">Ignatyuk, A. V.</span> ; <span class="author">Capote, R.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Nuclear Data Sheets</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Increasing interest in the treatment of human disease by means of targeted radionuclide-based therapies requires an accurate understanding of achievable yields and quantification of realisable degrees of purity. Important studies within a more extensive Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA CRP) have included in-depth assessments and evaluations of all available measured cross-section data for ten nuclear reactions leading to the formation of <sup>131</sup>Cs, <sup>131</sup>Ba, <sup>225</sup>Ac, <sup>225</sup>Ra, <sup>227</sup>Th, <sup>227</sup>Ac, <sup>230</sup>U and <sup>230</sup>Pa for various on-going and proposed therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Equivalent studies were also undertaken of possible reactions to produce the <sup>178W</sup>/low-spin <sup>178m</sup>Ta generator system<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> that has been clinically applied in diagnosis by means of SPECT - these particular cross-section studies and recommendations are included in this paper for completeness. All available measured data have been critically reviewed and assessed to produce statistically consistent datasets. Selected datasets have been fitted by a least-squares method with Padé approximations of variable order to evaluate the production cross sections and corresponding uncertainties. New measurements have been made in some instances, and reported data have been adjusted to accommodate new nuclear decay or monitor reaction data which altered the original reported quantities adversely. Insufficient measured data are available in many cases to permit a reliable evaluation of cross sections, and these instances are discussed. Finally, recommended therapeutic radionuclide production reaction data and their uncertainties are available on the Web page of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at www-nds.iaea.org/radionuclides/ and also at the IAEA medical portal www-nds.iaea.org/medportal/.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2019.01.003" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1493706" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1016/j.nds.2019.01.003</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1493706" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1493706" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1484024-reference-cross-sections-charged-particle-monitor-reactions" itemprop="url">Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Hermanne, A.</span> ; <span class="author">Ignatyuk, A. V.</span> ; <span class="author">Capote, R.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Nuclear Data Sheets</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, <sup>3</sup>He- and <sup>4</sup>He-particles. In conclusion, recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 21<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2018.02.009" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1484024" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1016/j.nds.2018.02.009</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1484024" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1484024" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1558295-recommended-nuclear-data-medical-radioisotope-production-diagnostic-positron-emitters" itemprop="url">Recommended nuclear data for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic positron emitters</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Tárkányi, F. T.</span> ; <span class="author">Ignatyuk, A. V.</span> ; <span class="author">Hermanne, A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">An IAEA coordinated research project that began in 2012 and ended in 2016 was primarily dedicated to the compilation, evaluation and recommendation of cross-section data for the production of medical radionuclides. One significant part of this work focused on diagnostic positron emitters. These particular studies consist of 69 reactions for direct and indirect or generator production of <sup>44</sup>Sc( <sup>44</sup>Ti), <sup>52</sup>mMn( <sup>52</sup>Fe), <sup>52</sup>gMn, <sup>55</sup>Co, <sup>61</sup>Cu, <sup>62</sup>Cu( <sup>62</sup>Zn), <sup>66</sup>Ga, <sup>68</sup>Ga( <sup>68</sup>Ge), <sup>72</sup>As( <sup>72</sup>Se), <sup>73</sup>Se, <sup>76</sup>Br, <sup>82</sup>Rb( <sup>82</sup>Sr), <sup>82</sup>mRb, <sup>86</sup>Y, <sup>89</sup>Zr, <sup>90</sup>Nb, <sup>94</sup>mTc, <sup>110</sup>mIn( <sup>110</sup>Sn), <sup>118</sup>Sb( <sup>118</sup>Te), <sup>120</sup>I, <sup>122</sup>I( <sup>122</sup>Xe), <sup>128</sup>Cs( <sup>128</sup>Ba), and <sup>140</sup>Pr( <sup>140</sup>Nd) medical radionuclides. The resulting reference cross-section data were<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> obtained from Padé fits to selected and corrected experimental data, and integral thick target yields were subsequently deduced. Uncertainties in the fitted results were estimated via a Padé least-squares method with the addition of a 4% assessed systematic uncertainty. Experimental data were also compared with theoretical predictions available from the TENDL-2015 and TENDL-2017 libraries.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 2<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6380-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1558295" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1007/s10967-018-6380-5</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1558295" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1558295" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/21333987-ripl-reference-input-parameter-library-calculation-nuclear-reactions-nuclear-data-evaluations" itemprop="url">RIPL - Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Capote, R.</span> ; <span class="author">Herman, M</span> ; <span class="author">Oblozinsky, P</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Nuclear Data Sheets</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> January 2009, and is available on the Web through (http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/). This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains phenomenological parameterizations based on the modified Fermi gas and superfluid models and microscopic calculations which are based on a realistic microscopic single-particle level scheme. Partial level densities formulae are also recommended. All tabulated total level densities are consistent with both the recommended average neutron resonance parameters and discrete levels. GAMMA contains parameters that quantify giant resonances, experimental gamma-ray strength functions and methods for calculating gamma emission in statistical model codes. The experimental GDR parameters are represented by Lorentzian fits to the photo-absorption cross sections for 102 nuclides ranging from {sup 51}V to {sup 239}Pu. FISSION includes global prescriptions for fission barriers and nuclear level densities at fission saddle points based on microscopic HFB calculations constrained by experimental fission cross sections.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2009.10.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="21333987" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="" >10.1016/j.nds.2009.10.004</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1040265-ripl-reference-input-parameter-library-calculation-nuclear-reactions-nuclear-data-evaluations" itemprop="url">RIPL-Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Capote, R</span> ; <span class="author">Herman, M</span> ; <span class="author">Capote, R</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Nuclear Data Sheets</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains phenomenological parameterizations based on the modified Fermi gas and superfluid models and microscopic calculations which are based on a realistic microscopic single-particle level scheme. Partial level densities formulae are also recommended. All tabulated total level densities are consistent with both the recommended average neutron resonance parameters and discrete levels. GAMMA contains parameters that quantify giant resonances, experimental gamma-ray strength functions and methods for calculating gamma emission in statistical model codes. The experimental GDR parameters are represented by Lorentzian fits to the photo-absorption cross sections for 102 nuclides ranging from {sup 51}V to {sup 239}Pu. FISSION includes global prescriptions for fission barriers and nuclear level densities at fission saddle points based on microscopic HFB calculations constrained by experimental fission cross sections.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2009.10.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1040265" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1016/j.nds.2009.10.004</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="d-none d-sm-inline" style="color:#737373;">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none mb-1"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/css/ostigov.fonts.200708.1900.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/js/ostigov.200708.1900.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/ostigov.biblio.200708.1900.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- OSTI.GOV v.200708.1900 --> </html>