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Title: Fundamental understanding of chemical processes in extreme ultraviolet resist materials

Abstract

New photoresists are needed to advance extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The tailored design of efficient photoresists is enabled by a fundamental understanding of EUV induced chemistry. Processes that occur in the resist film after absorption of an EUV photon are discussed, and a new approach to study these processes on a fundamental level is described. The processes of photoabsorption, electron emission, and molecular fragmentation were studied experimentally in the gas-phase on analogs of the monomer units employed in chemically amplified EUV resists. To demonstrate the dependence of the EUV absorption cross section on selective light harvesting substituents, halogenated methylphenols were characterized employing the following techniques. Photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to investigate kinetic energies and yield of electrons emitted by a molecule. The emission of Auger electrons was detected following photoionization in the case of iodo-methylphenol. Mass-spectrometry was used to deduce the molecular fragmentation pathways following electron emission and atomic relaxation. To gain insight on the interaction of emitted electrons with neutral molecules in a condensed film, the fragmentation pattern of neutral gas-phase molecules, interacting with an electron beam, was studied and observed to be similar to EUV photon fragmentation. Below the ionization threshold, electrons were confirmed to dissociate iodo-methylphenol bymore » resonant electron attachment.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [4];  [5]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Foundry
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-Ray Optics
  4. Columbia Hill Technical Consulting, Fremont, CA (United States)
  5. IBM Almaden, San Jose, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1506372
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1478273
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Chemical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9606
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Kostko, Oleg, Xu, Bo, Ahmed, Musahid, Slaughter, Daniel S., Ogletree, D. Frank, Closser, Kristina D., Prendergast, David G., Naulleau, Patrick, Olynick, Deirdre L., Ashby, Paul D., Liu, Yi, Hinsberg, William D., and Wallraff, Gregory M. Fundamental understanding of chemical processes in extreme ultraviolet resist materials. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5046521.
Kostko, Oleg, Xu, Bo, Ahmed, Musahid, Slaughter, Daniel S., Ogletree, D. Frank, Closser, Kristina D., Prendergast, David G., Naulleau, Patrick, Olynick, Deirdre L., Ashby, Paul D., Liu, Yi, Hinsberg, William D., & Wallraff, Gregory M. Fundamental understanding of chemical processes in extreme ultraviolet resist materials. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5046521.
Kostko, Oleg, Xu, Bo, Ahmed, Musahid, Slaughter, Daniel S., Ogletree, D. Frank, Closser, Kristina D., Prendergast, David G., Naulleau, Patrick, Olynick, Deirdre L., Ashby, Paul D., Liu, Yi, Hinsberg, William D., and Wallraff, Gregory M. Fri . "Fundamental understanding of chemical processes in extreme ultraviolet resist materials". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5046521. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1506372.
@article{osti_1506372,
title = {Fundamental understanding of chemical processes in extreme ultraviolet resist materials},
author = {Kostko, Oleg and Xu, Bo and Ahmed, Musahid and Slaughter, Daniel S. and Ogletree, D. Frank and Closser, Kristina D. and Prendergast, David G. and Naulleau, Patrick and Olynick, Deirdre L. and Ashby, Paul D. and Liu, Yi and Hinsberg, William D. and Wallraff, Gregory M.},
abstractNote = {New photoresists are needed to advance extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The tailored design of efficient photoresists is enabled by a fundamental understanding of EUV induced chemistry. Processes that occur in the resist film after absorption of an EUV photon are discussed, and a new approach to study these processes on a fundamental level is described. The processes of photoabsorption, electron emission, and molecular fragmentation were studied experimentally in the gas-phase on analogs of the monomer units employed in chemically amplified EUV resists. To demonstrate the dependence of the EUV absorption cross section on selective light harvesting substituents, halogenated methylphenols were characterized employing the following techniques. Photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to investigate kinetic energies and yield of electrons emitted by a molecule. The emission of Auger electrons was detected following photoionization in the case of iodo-methylphenol. Mass-spectrometry was used to deduce the molecular fragmentation pathways following electron emission and atomic relaxation. To gain insight on the interaction of emitted electrons with neutral molecules in a condensed film, the fragmentation pattern of neutral gas-phase molecules, interacting with an electron beam, was studied and observed to be similar to EUV photon fragmentation. Below the ionization threshold, electrons were confirmed to dissociate iodo-methylphenol by resonant electron attachment.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5046521},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
issn = {0021-9606},
number = 15,
volume = 149,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Photoelectron spectra of gas‐phase molecules measured using 13.5 nm (92 eV) EUV radiation. Black line corresponds to experimental data, red line corresponds to model. a) 2‐ methylphenol, b) 4‐fluoro‐2‐methylphenol, c) 4‐chloro‐2‐methylphenol, d) 4‐bromo‐2‐methylphenol, e) 4‐iodo‐2‐methylphenol, f) 2,3,5,6‐tetrafluoro‐4‐(trifluoromethyl)phenol. Different atomic energy levels of the model are labeled in red.more » Peaks labeled in panel a) are common for all presented spectra, therefore only new peaks corresponding to halogen atom(s) are labeled in panels b)‐f).« less

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