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Title: Dual-Zone Solar Control Indoor Shade: Demonstration at the Ronald V. Dellums Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse, 1301 Clay Street, Oakland, California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Windows Testbed, Berkeley, California

Technical Report ·
DOI:· OSTI ID:1506291

Standard window shades are used to control sunlight, glare, window heat gains, and daylight. The challenge with conventional shades is that once the shades are lowered to reduce discomfort, daylight is reduced, which, in turn, increases the need for electric lighting. View is also obstructed, reducing the occupants’ connection to the outdoors. The strategy of subdividing the window wall and admitting daylight from above and controlling sunlight and view through the lower aperture can yield significant energy and peak demand savings over conventional shading systems, and improve the daylight quality of the indoor environment. This study evaluated a dual zone solar control (DZSC) shade with an upper, automated, horizontal, venetian blind with concave-up, matte white slats and a lower, manually operated, roller shade made of a transparent, reflective film. The automatic controls were designed to adjust the upper slat angle to maximize daylight to the room interior. The lower shade, when lowered, provided an unobstructed view to the outdoors. For the qualitative analysis, the DZSC shades were installed on windows in the southeast half of one floor in the Ronald V. Dellums Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse or hereafter referred to as the Oakland Federal Building (OFB) in Oakland, California. The position of the DZSC shades were observed and recorded periodically. Surveys were issued to occupants in the private offices and open plan workstations affected by the shades. For the quantitative analysis, the DZSC shades were installed in the south-facing windows of thermally isolated, fully instrumented, test chambers in the Advanced Windows Testbed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California. Measurements of window heat loads, daylight illuminance and environmental conditions related to visual and thermal comfort were collected over a six-month, solstice-to-solstice period. The performance of the DZSC shade was compared to fabric roller shades and venetian blinds since these are the two most common types of shades used in both commercial and Federal buildings. Several DZSC design permutations were evaluated: 1) manual or automated control of the upper louver system (“man” or “auto”) and 2) tinted or silvered reflective film for the lower shade (“Gray-Gray (GG)” or “Gray-Silver (GS)”1). The automated, reflective shade (auto-GS) reduced dimmable fluorescent lighting energy use by 51% and window cooling load by 13-15% compared to a conventional fabric roller shade with dual-pane, spectrally selective, low-e windows during the summer period (winter period was not measured). Qualitative analysis revealed that the auto-GS shade was preferred by 80% of the survey respondents compared to the existing vertical fabric blinds with single-pane, tinted windows in the occupied building. Survey results indicated that visual discomfort was reduced and thermal discomfort was also reduced during warm or hot weather. Occupants expressed greater satisfaction with the unobstructed view. Installation and commissioning of the DZSC shades was fairly straightforward with some minor problems due to inadequate installation instructions and improper wiring. A few occupants expressed dissatisfaction with the automatic controls for the upper louvers due to visual discomfort, erroneous control, and motor noise.

Research Organization:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Organization:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
DOE Contract Number:
Country of Publication:
United States