skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Efficient Solar–Thermal Distillation Desalination Device by Light Absorptive Carbon Composite Porous Foam

Abstract

Solar–thermal driven desalination based on porous carbon materials has promise for fresh water production. Exploration of high–efficiency solar desalination devices has not solved issues for practical application, namely complicated fabrication, cost–effectiveness, and scalability. Here, direct solar–thermal carbon distillation (DS–CD) tubular devices are introduced that have a facile fabrication process, are scalable, and use an inexpensive but efficient microporous graphite foam coated with carbon nanoparticle and superhydrophobic materials. The “black” composite foam serving as a solar light absorber heats up salt water effectively to produce fresh water vapor, and the superhydrophobic surface of the foam traps the liquid feed in the device. Two proof–of–principle distillation systems are adopted, i.e., solar still and membrane distillation and the fabricated devices are evaluated for direct solar desalination efficiency. For the solar still, nanoparticle and fluorosilane coatings on the porous surface increase the solar energy absorbance, resulting in a solar–steam generation efficiency of 64% from simulated seawater at 1 sun. The membrane distillation demonstrates excellent vapor production (≈6.6 kg m –2 h –1) with >99.5% salt rejection under simulated 3 sun solar–thermal irradiation. Furthermore unlike traditional solar desalination, the adaptable DS–CD can easily be scaled up to larger systems such as high–temperature tubular modules, presentingmore » a promising solution for solar–energy–driven desalination.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1505649
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1505650; OSTI ID: 1507864
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Global Challenges
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2056-6646
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
distillation; graphite foam; solar desalination; superhydrophobicity

Citation Formats

Jang, Gyoung Gug, Klett, James William, McFarlane, Joanna, Ievlev, Anton, Xiao, Kai, Keum, Jong K., Yoon, Mina, Im, Piljae, Hu, Michael Z., and Parks, II, James E. Efficient Solar–Thermal Distillation Desalination Device by Light Absorptive Carbon Composite Porous Foam. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/gch2.201900003.
Jang, Gyoung Gug, Klett, James William, McFarlane, Joanna, Ievlev, Anton, Xiao, Kai, Keum, Jong K., Yoon, Mina, Im, Piljae, Hu, Michael Z., & Parks, II, James E. Efficient Solar–Thermal Distillation Desalination Device by Light Absorptive Carbon Composite Porous Foam. United States. doi:10.1002/gch2.201900003.
Jang, Gyoung Gug, Klett, James William, McFarlane, Joanna, Ievlev, Anton, Xiao, Kai, Keum, Jong K., Yoon, Mina, Im, Piljae, Hu, Michael Z., and Parks, II, James E. Mon . "Efficient Solar–Thermal Distillation Desalination Device by Light Absorptive Carbon Composite Porous Foam". United States. doi:10.1002/gch2.201900003.
@article{osti_1505649,
title = {Efficient Solar–Thermal Distillation Desalination Device by Light Absorptive Carbon Composite Porous Foam},
author = {Jang, Gyoung Gug and Klett, James William and McFarlane, Joanna and Ievlev, Anton and Xiao, Kai and Keum, Jong K. and Yoon, Mina and Im, Piljae and Hu, Michael Z. and Parks, II, James E.},
abstractNote = {Solar–thermal driven desalination based on porous carbon materials has promise for fresh water production. Exploration of high–efficiency solar desalination devices has not solved issues for practical application, namely complicated fabrication, cost–effectiveness, and scalability. Here, direct solar–thermal carbon distillation (DS–CD) tubular devices are introduced that have a facile fabrication process, are scalable, and use an inexpensive but efficient microporous graphite foam coated with carbon nanoparticle and superhydrophobic materials. The “black” composite foam serving as a solar light absorber heats up salt water effectively to produce fresh water vapor, and the superhydrophobic surface of the foam traps the liquid feed in the device. Two proof–of–principle distillation systems are adopted, i.e., solar still and membrane distillation and the fabricated devices are evaluated for direct solar desalination efficiency. For the solar still, nanoparticle and fluorosilane coatings on the porous surface increase the solar energy absorbance, resulting in a solar–steam generation efficiency of 64% from simulated seawater at 1 sun. The membrane distillation demonstrates excellent vapor production (≈6.6 kg m–2 h–1) with >99.5% salt rejection under simulated 3 sun solar–thermal irradiation. Furthermore unlike traditional solar desalination, the adaptable DS–CD can easily be scaled up to larger systems such as high–temperature tubular modules, presenting a promising solution for solar–energy–driven desalination.},
doi = {10.1002/gch2.201900003},
journal = {Global Challenges},
issn = {2056-6646},
number = 4,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1002/gch2.201900003

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

High-thermal-conductivity, mesophase-pitch-derived carbon foams: effect of precursor on structure and properties
journal, January 2000