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Title: Fluid Dynamics Effects on Microstructure Prediction in Single Laser Tracks for Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

The Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing (LPBFAM) is one of the most important processes for the production of lightweight, cost-effective, complex, and high-performance enduse parts. At present, the cost and time associated with LPBFAM process development is very high due to a lack of fundamental process understanding. In this project, a multi-physics model was developed on a highly parallel open-source code, Truchas, with the ultimate goal of providing experimentally validated process maps for tailoring microstructure to achieve desired performance for LPBFAM. As a critical step towards fully LPBFAM modeling, modeling of single-track laser fusion (STLF) were conducted. Multi-physics simulations were conducted using Truchas for STLF by considering heat transfer, phase-change, fluid dynamics, surface tension phenomena, and evaporation. In order to assess the effect of the fluid dynamics on the solidification and ensuing microstructure, a heat transfer-and-solidification-only (HTS) model and a fully coupled heat-transfer-solidification and fluid-dynamics (HTS-FD) model were considered. In the HTS_FD model, the fluid flow was considered to be laminar while the molten alloy surface is assumed to be flat and non-deformable. This study is one the first attempt to understand the effect of the fluid flow on microstructure in STLF and LPBFAM. The results show that themore » fluid flow affects the solidification and ensuing microstructure in STLF. In order to validate Truchas for STLF and LPBFAM modeling, experimental data, which was obtained at GE Global Research (GEGR) for liquid pool shape and microstructure, were compared with those from numerical simulation results. For the keyhole regime case, numerical simulation results indicate that the melt-pool shape was typical to that of the conduction case with very large deviations from the measured melt-pool depths. Two sensitivity studies were conducted by varying the evaporation flux and the surface tension coefficient at fixed laser absorptivities of 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The minimum value for the overall combined error, between the calculated values with the HTS_FD model and measured values for both the width and height of the melt-pool, was attained for a surface tension coefficient of -0.75e-4 N/m. An analytical solidification model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in rapid solidification was used to assess the microstructure variation within the melt-pool. From numerical simulation results, thermal gradient, G, and solidification velocity, V, were obtained in order to predict the microstructure type (e.g., dendritic, cellular). For the fluid-flow HTS_FD model, G was found to exhibit a maximum at the extremity of the solidified pool (i.e., at the free surface). By contrast, for HTS simulations, G was found to exhibit a maximum around the entire edge of the solidified pool. For the HTS_FD simulations, the minimum values of the cooling rate, GV, were found to be approximately half than their corresponding values for HTS simulations. By contrast with the min GV values, the maximum values for GV were found to occur for the HTS_FD simulations. Thus, HTS_FD simulations were found to exhibit a wider range of cooling rates than the HTS simulations. Concerning the solidification maps, the variation of the solidification velocity, V, as function of the thermal gradient, G, was obtained. It was found that the fluid flow model results (HTS_FD) exhibited an increased spread in the V(G) variation within the melt pool with respect to the HTS model results (without the fluid flow). A preliminary correlation model for the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) based on a power law dependence on thermal gradient and solidification velocity was used to estimate PDAS from HTS and HTS_FD simulations. For low laser powers and low laser speeds, the PDAS obtained 6 with the fluid dynamics model (HTS_FD) was larger by more than 30% with respect to the PDAS calculated with the simple HTS model. In the second part of the project, fifty-seven simulations were conducted in order to obtain data on microstructure variables that can be used for process map development. In order to cover the entire processing space, thirty-three cases were selected STLF process simulations at six power levels and six laser scanning speeds. The 57 STLF process simulations were conducted as follows: 33 simulations with the heat-transfer-only (HTS) model and 24 simulations with the fluid flow model (HTS_FD). The solidification map data shows that for all simulations, a columnar dendritic microstructure would be expected. It was found that the minimum, average, and maximum thermal gradient exhibit exponential variations with respect to a process variable defined as the ratio between the power and square root of scan speed.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1505324
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2018/1044
CRADA/NFE-16-06224
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Sabau, Adrian S., Lang, Yuan, Raghavan, Narendran, Simunovic, Srdjan, Turner, John A., and Gupta, Vipul K. Fluid Dynamics Effects on Microstructure Prediction in Single Laser Tracks for Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1505324.
Sabau, Adrian S., Lang, Yuan, Raghavan, Narendran, Simunovic, Srdjan, Turner, John A., & Gupta, Vipul K. Fluid Dynamics Effects on Microstructure Prediction in Single Laser Tracks for Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.2172/1505324.
Sabau, Adrian S., Lang, Yuan, Raghavan, Narendran, Simunovic, Srdjan, Turner, John A., and Gupta, Vipul K. Mon . "Fluid Dynamics Effects on Microstructure Prediction in Single Laser Tracks for Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.2172/1505324. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1505324.
@article{osti_1505324,
title = {Fluid Dynamics Effects on Microstructure Prediction in Single Laser Tracks for Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Sabau, Adrian S. and Lang, Yuan and Raghavan, Narendran and Simunovic, Srdjan and Turner, John A. and Gupta, Vipul K.},
abstractNote = {The Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing (LPBFAM) is one of the most important processes for the production of lightweight, cost-effective, complex, and high-performance enduse parts. At present, the cost and time associated with LPBFAM process development is very high due to a lack of fundamental process understanding. In this project, a multi-physics model was developed on a highly parallel open-source code, Truchas, with the ultimate goal of providing experimentally validated process maps for tailoring microstructure to achieve desired performance for LPBFAM. As a critical step towards fully LPBFAM modeling, modeling of single-track laser fusion (STLF) were conducted. Multi-physics simulations were conducted using Truchas for STLF by considering heat transfer, phase-change, fluid dynamics, surface tension phenomena, and evaporation. In order to assess the effect of the fluid dynamics on the solidification and ensuing microstructure, a heat transfer-and-solidification-only (HTS) model and a fully coupled heat-transfer-solidification and fluid-dynamics (HTS-FD) model were considered. In the HTS_FD model, the fluid flow was considered to be laminar while the molten alloy surface is assumed to be flat and non-deformable. This study is one the first attempt to understand the effect of the fluid flow on microstructure in STLF and LPBFAM. The results show that the fluid flow affects the solidification and ensuing microstructure in STLF. In order to validate Truchas for STLF and LPBFAM modeling, experimental data, which was obtained at GE Global Research (GEGR) for liquid pool shape and microstructure, were compared with those from numerical simulation results. For the keyhole regime case, numerical simulation results indicate that the melt-pool shape was typical to that of the conduction case with very large deviations from the measured melt-pool depths. Two sensitivity studies were conducted by varying the evaporation flux and the surface tension coefficient at fixed laser absorptivities of 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The minimum value for the overall combined error, between the calculated values with the HTS_FD model and measured values for both the width and height of the melt-pool, was attained for a surface tension coefficient of -0.75e-4 N/m. An analytical solidification model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in rapid solidification was used to assess the microstructure variation within the melt-pool. From numerical simulation results, thermal gradient, G, and solidification velocity, V, were obtained in order to predict the microstructure type (e.g., dendritic, cellular). For the fluid-flow HTS_FD model, G was found to exhibit a maximum at the extremity of the solidified pool (i.e., at the free surface). By contrast, for HTS simulations, G was found to exhibit a maximum around the entire edge of the solidified pool. For the HTS_FD simulations, the minimum values of the cooling rate, GV, were found to be approximately half than their corresponding values for HTS simulations. By contrast with the min GV values, the maximum values for GV were found to occur for the HTS_FD simulations. Thus, HTS_FD simulations were found to exhibit a wider range of cooling rates than the HTS simulations. Concerning the solidification maps, the variation of the solidification velocity, V, as function of the thermal gradient, G, was obtained. It was found that the fluid flow model results (HTS_FD) exhibited an increased spread in the V(G) variation within the melt pool with respect to the HTS model results (without the fluid flow). A preliminary correlation model for the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) based on a power law dependence on thermal gradient and solidification velocity was used to estimate PDAS from HTS and HTS_FD simulations. For low laser powers and low laser speeds, the PDAS obtained 6 with the fluid dynamics model (HTS_FD) was larger by more than 30% with respect to the PDAS calculated with the simple HTS model. In the second part of the project, fifty-seven simulations were conducted in order to obtain data on microstructure variables that can be used for process map development. In order to cover the entire processing space, thirty-three cases were selected STLF process simulations at six power levels and six laser scanning speeds. The 57 STLF process simulations were conducted as follows: 33 simulations with the heat-transfer-only (HTS) model and 24 simulations with the fluid flow model (HTS_FD). The solidification map data shows that for all simulations, a columnar dendritic microstructure would be expected. It was found that the minimum, average, and maximum thermal gradient exhibit exponential variations with respect to a process variable defined as the ratio between the power and square root of scan speed.},
doi = {10.2172/1505324},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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