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Title: Hyper-Velocity Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions

Abstract

The large energy focalized deposition of the runaway electron (RE) beam on the first wall can potentially yield to destructive effects on the reactor vessel during the explosive instability of a major disruption in a large tokamak (e.g. RE beam estimation is multi-MA of ~10 MeV energy in ITER.) Impurity injection is seen as an effective way to suppress REs after thermal quench (TQ). Injected material in solid state is advantageous, but it must be in small size grain form, with large surface-to-mass ratio to facilitate its rapid ablation within plasma. However, the results using shattered pellet injection (SPI), a technique aiming to satisfy these condition, indicated that the relatively unexplored RE evolution phases and RE beam-plasma interaction are far from being properly diagnosed and fully understood. We proposed the idea to probe REs with a pulsed power hyper-velocity large-mass nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ). NPPJ provides a high specific surface area and swift injection to core, hence fast increase of three basic parameters: 1) the electron density ne (bound and free through ionization, if the cold post-TQ plasma has a still high enough T e), 2) the effective charge (Z eff ) which rises both the dynamical friction force andmore » plasma resistivity, and, finally, 3) the value of the (Dreicer and critical) threshold E-field above which electrons are accelerated and become REs. But the fast transient phenomena of RE ”seed” creation, RE ”avalanche” multiplication, and RE beam formation and interaction with the background plasma all take place dominantly in the core plasma, where the induction E-field has its maximum. Thus, the RE probe success requires a rapid (1 - 2 ms) injection of sufficient mass able to penetrate through the strong toroidal magnetic field (2 - 5 T) over a long distance (~1 - 2 m) with a large assimilation fraction in the core plasma. As a RE probe, NPPJ is a unique combination of fast response with trigger-to-delivery time of few milliseconds, large mass-velocity (>75 mg at several km/s) and deep injection into post-TQ central plasma. The Objectives of this Category #1 project (concept development) were as follows: 1: We investigated the essential basic physics aspects of creating a plasma with ~10 15 to 10 16 cm -3 boron nitride (BN) NP density suited for a pulsed power plasma gun acceleration to several km/s. We concluded that, for RE NPPJ probe, BN (diameter Ø10 to 100 nm NPs) are in all respects usable. 2: We advanced solutions to get BN NPPJ by adapting FAR-TECH’s technology for C 60 NPPJ. 3: We developed self-consistent models for RE current density j RE(R; t) evolution in the TQ aftermath, with fast and simultaneous increase of n e(R; t) and Z eff (R; t) > 1 upon the specific injection of C 60 (i.e. C ions) and BN NP (i.e. B and N ions), respectively. We showed that prompt post-TQ injection and high velocity are of essence in RE probe diagnostics and suppression. 4: We used the in-house HEM-2D code to simulate the C$$_{60}^{q+}$$ NPPJ transverse penetration through tokamak-level B-field (BT ~2 to 5 T) and distance (~1 to 2m), with fragmentation of C$$_{60}^{q+}$$ and developed the algorithm for BN Q+ NPPJ ablative sublimation of BN Q+ NP by the collisions with post-TQ plasma electrons. HEM-2D results indicated that fragmenting C$$_{60}^{1+}$$ NPPJ penetrates up to ~60 cm in 100 us when injecting at 1.6 ms after TQ and gradually released C 2 fragments and C ions.« less

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1503918
Report Number(s):
DOE-FAR-TECH-0017997
0000-0002-4874-9630
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0017997
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Tokamak disruption, runaway electrons, diagnostics, suppression, nanoparticle plasma jet, pulsed power plasma accelerator

Citation Formats

None, None. Hyper-Velocity Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1503918.
None, None. Hyper-Velocity Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1503918
None, None. Thu . "Hyper-Velocity Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1503918. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1503918.
@article{osti_1503918,
title = {Hyper-Velocity Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions},
author = {None, None},
abstractNote = {The large energy focalized deposition of the runaway electron (RE) beam on the first wall can potentially yield to destructive effects on the reactor vessel during the explosive instability of a major disruption in a large tokamak (e.g. RE beam estimation is multi-MA of ~10 MeV energy in ITER.) Impurity injection is seen as an effective way to suppress REs after thermal quench (TQ). Injected material in solid state is advantageous, but it must be in small size grain form, with large surface-to-mass ratio to facilitate its rapid ablation within plasma. However, the results using shattered pellet injection (SPI), a technique aiming to satisfy these condition, indicated that the relatively unexplored RE evolution phases and RE beam-plasma interaction are far from being properly diagnosed and fully understood. We proposed the idea to probe REs with a pulsed power hyper-velocity large-mass nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ). NPPJ provides a high specific surface area and swift injection to core, hence fast increase of three basic parameters: 1) the electron density ne (bound and free through ionization, if the cold post-TQ plasma has a still high enough Te), 2) the effective charge (Zeff ) which rises both the dynamical friction force and plasma resistivity, and, finally, 3) the value of the (Dreicer and critical) threshold E-field above which electrons are accelerated and become REs. But the fast transient phenomena of RE ”seed” creation, RE ”avalanche” multiplication, and RE beam formation and interaction with the background plasma all take place dominantly in the core plasma, where the induction E-field has its maximum. Thus, the RE probe success requires a rapid (1 - 2 ms) injection of sufficient mass able to penetrate through the strong toroidal magnetic field (2 - 5 T) over a long distance (~1 - 2 m) with a large assimilation fraction in the core plasma. As a RE probe, NPPJ is a unique combination of fast response with trigger-to-delivery time of few milliseconds, large mass-velocity (>75 mg at several km/s) and deep injection into post-TQ central plasma. The Objectives of this Category #1 project (concept development) were as follows: 1: We investigated the essential basic physics aspects of creating a plasma with ~1015 to 1016 cm-3 boron nitride (BN) NP density suited for a pulsed power plasma gun acceleration to several km/s. We concluded that, for RE NPPJ probe, BN (diameter Ø10 to 100 nm NPs) are in all respects usable. 2: We advanced solutions to get BN NPPJ by adapting FAR-TECH’s technology for C60 NPPJ. 3: We developed self-consistent models for RE current density jRE(R; t) evolution in the TQ aftermath, with fast and simultaneous increase of ne(R; t) and Zeff (R; t) > 1 upon the specific injection of C60 (i.e. C ions) and BN NP (i.e. B and N ions), respectively. We showed that prompt post-TQ injection and high velocity are of essence in RE probe diagnostics and suppression. 4: We used the in-house HEM-2D code to simulate the C$_{60}^{q+}$ NPPJ transverse penetration through tokamak-level B-field (BT ~2 to 5 T) and distance (~1 to 2m), with fragmentation of C$_{60}^{q+}$ and developed the algorithm for BNQ+ NPPJ ablative sublimation of BNQ+ NP by the collisions with post-TQ plasma electrons. HEM-2D results indicated that fragmenting C$_{60}^{1+}$ NPPJ penetrates up to ~60 cm in 100 us when injecting at 1.6 ms after TQ and gradually released C2 fragments and C ions.},
doi = {10.2172/1503918},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1503918}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}