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Title: Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security. Final Report

Abstract

For the past two decades a slowly growing consensus has been that rising temperature is being caused by increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2) in the Earth’s atmosphere. What is less consensual is what to do about it. Solutions range from reducing emissions to various ways to capture CO 2 (from effluents of power plants, as plants, etc.) and store it away from the atmosphere. The problem is of such magnitude that it is likely that we will need many methods. Also some methods would cause draconian harm to global economies. This work is about the storage part of the reducing of CO 2 in the atmosphere. There have been many methods proposed for storing CO 2: in vegetation, at the bottom of oceans, in land farms, and in subsurface formations. The latter is particularly prominent given the large estimated volume in porous formation in the Earth, and the 50-year old experience in injecting CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery. This report is about the science behind subsurface storage, called here geological carbon storage or GCS. Effective GCS requires that billions of metric tons of CO 2 be injected into storage reservoirs annually. GCS feasibility requires balancing the opposing impactsmore » of large emplacement (injection) rates without compromising caprock seal integrity during injection. Once injected, the challenge is to assure the injected CO 2 remains permanently stored. Under most conditions, CO 2 is in a supercritical state, or scCO 2. scCO 2 is immiscible with the subsurface brine and has a factor of ten smaller viscosity, leading to the development of two-phase fluid flow and scCO 2 bypassing. After the injection of large volumes of scCO 2, the pore pressure, state of stress, chemical, thermal, and biological steady-state or equilibrium conditions in the subsurface are disrupted, which may lead to unpredictable behavior because the responses to these changes are often non-linear. Current challenges for efficient and reliable scCO 2 storage are: (1) sustaining large injection rates; (2) using available pore space efficiently, and (3) controlling undesired or unexpected behavior, such as scCO 2 leakage. Various aspects of these challenges are addressed by collaborative projects within Center for Frontiers in Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES). Challenge 1 Sustaining large storage rates To offset the annual CO 2 emissions of in the United States, ~7 billion metric tons of CO 2 must be injected into the storage reservoirs annually. Injected CO 2 forms a plume that starts spreading, displacing originally resident brine, though inefficiently so. Because of its low viscosity, and buoyant forces, a CO 2 plume rises to the reservoir rock-caprock interface. Injecting large volumes of scCO 2 at sufficiently high rates into subsurface storage formations leads to increases in pore pressures, potential expansion of the reservoir rock, and may result in fracturing of the reservoir rock and/or caprock. CFSES research uses existing and new experimental and modeling approaches to identify chemical-physical controls on the permeability and pore pressure dynamics, anticipating geomechanical (fracturing) events, predicting multi-phase flow patterns and trapping of CO 2. Challenge 2 – Using pore space with unprecedented efficiency Since large volumes of scCO 2 are to be stored, the volume available in storage reservoirs must be used efficiently. Storage efficiency is defined as a fraction of pore space occupied by carbon dioxide. Current estimates are that less than 5 percent of available pore volume is available for storage because scCO 2, having a smaller density and viscosity than reservoir brine, tends to form viscous fingers, and bypass available pore space. This flow regime results in a CO 2 plume spreading over large areas in subsurface. The research goal in Challenge 2 is to advance the fundamental understanding of two-phase flow through porous media, including molecular-to meter- scale experimental and modeling approaches. This work leads to novel strategies to ensure that injected CO 2 occupies more than 5% of the pore space, ideally up to 50%. Challenge 3 – Controlling undesired or unexpected behavior Following the injection of scCO 2, the subsurface reservoir re-equilibrates to different physical and chemical states. This re-equilibration in space and time could lead to unexpected and/or undesired behavior: fracturing of reservoir rock and/or caprock, development of preferential flow paths, CO 2 leakage (to the surface or overlaying fresh water reservoirs), induced seismicity, and activation of faults. One of the main research goals of CFSES was to advance the fundamental understanding of how individual chemical and physical processes are coupled. We particularly focused on the chemical-mechanical coupling, and flow-mechanical coupling. We collected experimental and modeling data to determine the temporal and spatial scales of the coupled processes, which may lead to pore collapse caused by creep, activation of fractures and faults, chemically-induced fracture propagation, and self-focusing of scCO 2 flow.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The University of Texas at Austin
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1503847
Report Number(s):
DOE-UTAustin-0001114
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0001114
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; chemical-mechanical coupling, flow-mechanical coupling, geological carbon storage, science behind subsurface storage

Citation Formats

Akhbari, D., Akkutlu, Y, Altman, S. J., Aman, M, Aminzadeh, B, Arbogast, T., Bagaria, H. G., Balhoff, M, Bauer, S. J., Bennett, P. C., Bhagmane, J., Bielawski, C. W., Bishop, J. E., Biswal, S. L., Bollinger, J. A., Bowden, M. E., Boyd, V., Broome, S. T., Bryant, S., Bryndzia, T, Butler, D, Cardenas, B, Cassidy, M, Cha, M, Chan, M.A., Chang, C, Chaudhary, k, Chen, X., Chen, H, Chen, Y, Chini, G. P., Choens, C, Chojnicki, Kirsten, Chung, D H, Cole, D. R., Cornell, K. A., Craddock, P, Criscenti, L. J., Cui, L, Cygan, R T, Daigle, H, Daniel, S R, Davison, S M, Dehghanpour, H, Delshad, M, Deng, W, Dewers, T A, DiCarlo, D, Dong, J, Duan, Z, Eichhubl, P, Elhag, A S, Ellison, C J, Espinoza, D N, Estep, D, Evans, J, Fanizza, M F, Foster, L M, Foster, E L, Fouke, B W, Ganis, B, Geier, M, Ghosh, R, Gilbert, K, Gomez, S, Guiltinan, E J, Hackley, P C, Hardy, C D, Hart, D B, Hayman, N W, He, B, Heath, J E, Hernandez-Uribe, L. Alberto, Hess, N J, Hesse, M A, Hirasaki, G J, Ho, T A, Ho, J, Hosseini, S A, Hu, M, Huang, C S, Hueckel, T, Huh, C, Hung, C H, Ilgen, A G, Illangasekare, T. H., Ingram, D R, Iqbal, M, Islan, A, Jammoul, M, Javier, K J, Jensen, E W, Jessen, K, Jiang, H, Jin, S, Joekar-Niasar, V, Johnston, K P, Jung, J, Jung, H, Juntunen, M, Kang, Q, Katz, L, Kelemen, P B, Kelkar, C W, Kelly, E D, Ketcham, R A, Kharaka, Y K, Kianinejad, A, Killough, J E, Kim, S, Kim, K, Kim, M F, Kirk, M F, Kitnidis, P, Kmetz, A A, Kneafsey, T J, Kobos, P, Kong, X, Kotsmar, C, Krafczyk, M, Krishnamurthy, P G, Kruichak, J N, Kucala, A, Kumar, K, Kwok, A, Lake, L, Larson, E S, Larson, T E, Lee, S, Lee, Y J, Lee, J, Lee, W, Leist, E A, Leung, W, Leung, J Y, Leung, Y, Liang, Y, Lin, E L, Lisabeth, H P, Liu, R, Liu, H, Liu, Z C, Lotfollahi, M, Luo, L S, Lützenkirchen, J, Lyon, B A, Ma, K, Maisano, J A, Major, J R, Martinez, M J, Matteo, E, McFadden, C, McGrath, L K, McKenna, S A, McNeece, C J, Meckel, T A, Mehmani, A, Mehmani, Y, Merino, E, Metaxas, A E, Mikelić, A, Milner, T E, Mirzaei, M, Moaseri, E, Mozley, P S, Myshakin, E M, Nakshatrala, K B, Neilson, B M, Newell, P, Nguyen, Q P, Noble, D R, Noguera, J A, Olson, J E, Omelon, C R, Oostrom, M, Ortiz, M R, Ovaysi, S, Parks, M L, Pasquali, A, Pastora, L E, Pencheva, G, Pennell, K D, Perego, M, Perkins, W A, Person, M, Peterman, A H, Petersen, R T, Phan, S, Pike, D Q, Prigiobbe, V, Prodanovic, M, Pyrak-Nolte, L J, Quintanilla, H, Raduha, S, Rakowski, C L, Ramos, M J, Reber, J E, Reddy, P R, Requeiro, R A, Richmond, M C, Rinehart, A G, Roach, C M, Roberts, M, Romanak, K D, Romanov, V N, Romero-Gomez, P, Ruoff, R S, Sanford, R A, Santamarina, J C, Santillan, E F U, Sathaye, K J, Scheibe, T D, Schonherr, M, Sen, M K, Senthilnathan, S, Serkowski, J A, Shafiei, M, Shanahan, T M, Shao, S, Sheehan, B, Sheikh, A H El, Shi, Z, Shovkun, I A, Singh, G, Singh, R, Slottke, D T, Sobolik, S, Srinivasan, S, Stadler, G, Stauffer, P H, Stockli, D F, Stormont, J, Strack, E A, Strathmann, T J, Suarez-Rivera, R, Sun, Z, Sun, Y, Sun, A, Sun, T, Sweetser, J D, Taha, M Reda, Tang, H, Tang, Y, Tartakovsky, A M, Tartakovsky, G D, Tavakoli, R, Tavener, S, Tenney, C M, Thomassen, D, Tian, X, Tran, V, Trask, N, Trevisan, L, Truskett, T M, Tsotsis, T T, Turner, D Z, Ureña-Benavides, E E, Valocchi, A J, Vohralik, M, Wang, L, Wang, W, Wang, B, Wang, W H, Wang, Y, Wen, B, Werth, C J, Wheeler, M, White, D, Wick, T, Wietsma, T W, Wildey, T, Wilson, A, Wilson, Jennifer, Wolfe, W, Worthen, A J, Xiao, H, Xue, Z, Xue, G, Yang, C, Yang, X, Yoon, H, Yoon, K Y, Yotov, I A, Youl, A, Youl, K, Yu, G, Zhang, L, Zhang, C, Zhang, R, Zhen, T, and Zhu, W. Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security. Final Report. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1503847.
Akhbari, D., Akkutlu, Y, Altman, S. J., Aman, M, Aminzadeh, B, Arbogast, T., Bagaria, H. G., Balhoff, M, Bauer, S. J., Bennett, P. C., Bhagmane, J., Bielawski, C. W., Bishop, J. E., Biswal, S. L., Bollinger, J. A., Bowden, M. E., Boyd, V., Broome, S. T., Bryant, S., Bryndzia, T, Butler, D, Cardenas, B, Cassidy, M, Cha, M, Chan, M.A., Chang, C, Chaudhary, k, Chen, X., Chen, H, Chen, Y, Chini, G. P., Choens, C, Chojnicki, Kirsten, Chung, D H, Cole, D. R., Cornell, K. A., Craddock, P, Criscenti, L. J., Cui, L, Cygan, R T, Daigle, H, Daniel, S R, Davison, S M, Dehghanpour, H, Delshad, M, Deng, W, Dewers, T A, DiCarlo, D, Dong, J, Duan, Z, Eichhubl, P, Elhag, A S, Ellison, C J, Espinoza, D N, Estep, D, Evans, J, Fanizza, M F, Foster, L M, Foster, E L, Fouke, B W, Ganis, B, Geier, M, Ghosh, R, Gilbert, K, Gomez, S, Guiltinan, E J, Hackley, P C, Hardy, C D, Hart, D B, Hayman, N W, He, B, Heath, J E, Hernandez-Uribe, L. Alberto, Hess, N J, Hesse, M A, Hirasaki, G J, Ho, T A, Ho, J, Hosseini, S A, Hu, M, Huang, C S, Hueckel, T, Huh, C, Hung, C H, Ilgen, A G, Illangasekare, T. H., Ingram, D R, Iqbal, M, Islan, A, Jammoul, M, Javier, K J, Jensen, E W, Jessen, K, Jiang, H, Jin, S, Joekar-Niasar, V, Johnston, K P, Jung, J, Jung, H, Juntunen, M, Kang, Q, Katz, L, Kelemen, P B, Kelkar, C W, Kelly, E D, Ketcham, R A, Kharaka, Y K, Kianinejad, A, Killough, J E, Kim, S, Kim, K, Kim, M F, Kirk, M F, Kitnidis, P, Kmetz, A A, Kneafsey, T J, Kobos, P, Kong, X, Kotsmar, C, Krafczyk, M, Krishnamurthy, P G, Kruichak, J N, Kucala, A, Kumar, K, Kwok, A, Lake, L, Larson, E S, Larson, T E, Lee, S, Lee, Y J, Lee, J, Lee, W, Leist, E A, Leung, W, Leung, J Y, Leung, Y, Liang, Y, Lin, E L, Lisabeth, H P, Liu, R, Liu, H, Liu, Z C, Lotfollahi, M, Luo, L S, Lützenkirchen, J, Lyon, B A, Ma, K, Maisano, J A, Major, J R, Martinez, M J, Matteo, E, McFadden, C, McGrath, L K, McKenna, S A, McNeece, C J, Meckel, T A, Mehmani, A, Mehmani, Y, Merino, E, Metaxas, A E, Mikelić, A, Milner, T E, Mirzaei, M, Moaseri, E, Mozley, P S, Myshakin, E M, Nakshatrala, K B, Neilson, B M, Newell, P, Nguyen, Q P, Noble, D R, Noguera, J A, Olson, J E, Omelon, C R, Oostrom, M, Ortiz, M R, Ovaysi, S, Parks, M L, Pasquali, A, Pastora, L E, Pencheva, G, Pennell, K D, Perego, M, Perkins, W A, Person, M, Peterman, A H, Petersen, R T, Phan, S, Pike, D Q, Prigiobbe, V, Prodanovic, M, Pyrak-Nolte, L J, Quintanilla, H, Raduha, S, Rakowski, C L, Ramos, M J, Reber, J E, Reddy, P R, Requeiro, R A, Richmond, M C, Rinehart, A G, Roach, C M, Roberts, M, Romanak, K D, Romanov, V N, Romero-Gomez, P, Ruoff, R S, Sanford, R A, Santamarina, J C, Santillan, E F U, Sathaye, K J, Scheibe, T D, Schonherr, M, Sen, M K, Senthilnathan, S, Serkowski, J A, Shafiei, M, Shanahan, T M, Shao, S, Sheehan, B, Sheikh, A H El, Shi, Z, Shovkun, I A, Singh, G, Singh, R, Slottke, D T, Sobolik, S, Srinivasan, S, Stadler, G, Stauffer, P H, Stockli, D F, Stormont, J, Strack, E A, Strathmann, T J, Suarez-Rivera, R, Sun, Z, Sun, Y, Sun, A, Sun, T, Sweetser, J D, Taha, M Reda, Tang, H, Tang, Y, Tartakovsky, A M, Tartakovsky, G D, Tavakoli, R, Tavener, S, Tenney, C M, Thomassen, D, Tian, X, Tran, V, Trask, N, Trevisan, L, Truskett, T M, Tsotsis, T T, Turner, D Z, Ureña-Benavides, E E, Valocchi, A J, Vohralik, M, Wang, L, Wang, W, Wang, B, Wang, W H, Wang, Y, Wen, B, Werth, C J, Wheeler, M, White, D, Wick, T, Wietsma, T W, Wildey, T, Wilson, A, Wilson, Jennifer, Wolfe, W, Worthen, A J, Xiao, H, Xue, Z, Xue, G, Yang, C, Yang, X, Yoon, H, Yoon, K Y, Yotov, I A, Youl, A, Youl, K, Yu, G, Zhang, L, Zhang, C, Zhang, R, Zhen, T, & Zhu, W. Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security. Final Report. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1503847
Akhbari, D., Akkutlu, Y, Altman, S. J., Aman, M, Aminzadeh, B, Arbogast, T., Bagaria, H. G., Balhoff, M, Bauer, S. J., Bennett, P. C., Bhagmane, J., Bielawski, C. W., Bishop, J. E., Biswal, S. L., Bollinger, J. A., Bowden, M. E., Boyd, V., Broome, S. T., Bryant, S., Bryndzia, T, Butler, D, Cardenas, B, Cassidy, M, Cha, M, Chan, M.A., Chang, C, Chaudhary, k, Chen, X., Chen, H, Chen, Y, Chini, G. P., Choens, C, Chojnicki, Kirsten, Chung, D H, Cole, D. R., Cornell, K. A., Craddock, P, Criscenti, L. J., Cui, L, Cygan, R T, Daigle, H, Daniel, S R, Davison, S M, Dehghanpour, H, Delshad, M, Deng, W, Dewers, T A, DiCarlo, D, Dong, J, Duan, Z, Eichhubl, P, Elhag, A S, Ellison, C J, Espinoza, D N, Estep, D, Evans, J, Fanizza, M F, Foster, L M, Foster, E L, Fouke, B W, Ganis, B, Geier, M, Ghosh, R, Gilbert, K, Gomez, S, Guiltinan, E J, Hackley, P C, Hardy, C D, Hart, D B, Hayman, N W, He, B, Heath, J E, Hernandez-Uribe, L. Alberto, Hess, N J, Hesse, M A, Hirasaki, G J, Ho, T A, Ho, J, Hosseini, S A, Hu, M, Huang, C S, Hueckel, T, Huh, C, Hung, C H, Ilgen, A G, Illangasekare, T. H., Ingram, D R, Iqbal, M, Islan, A, Jammoul, M, Javier, K J, Jensen, E W, Jessen, K, Jiang, H, Jin, S, Joekar-Niasar, V, Johnston, K P, Jung, J, Jung, H, Juntunen, M, Kang, Q, Katz, L, Kelemen, P B, Kelkar, C W, Kelly, E D, Ketcham, R A, Kharaka, Y K, Kianinejad, A, Killough, J E, Kim, S, Kim, K, Kim, M F, Kirk, M F, Kitnidis, P, Kmetz, A A, Kneafsey, T J, Kobos, P, Kong, X, Kotsmar, C, Krafczyk, M, Krishnamurthy, P G, Kruichak, J N, Kucala, A, Kumar, K, Kwok, A, Lake, L, Larson, E S, Larson, T E, Lee, S, Lee, Y J, Lee, J, Lee, W, Leist, E A, Leung, W, Leung, J Y, Leung, Y, Liang, Y, Lin, E L, Lisabeth, H P, Liu, R, Liu, H, Liu, Z C, Lotfollahi, M, Luo, L S, Lützenkirchen, J, Lyon, B A, Ma, K, Maisano, J A, Major, J R, Martinez, M J, Matteo, E, McFadden, C, McGrath, L K, McKenna, S A, McNeece, C J, Meckel, T A, Mehmani, A, Mehmani, Y, Merino, E, Metaxas, A E, Mikelić, A, Milner, T E, Mirzaei, M, Moaseri, E, Mozley, P S, Myshakin, E M, Nakshatrala, K B, Neilson, B M, Newell, P, Nguyen, Q P, Noble, D R, Noguera, J A, Olson, J E, Omelon, C R, Oostrom, M, Ortiz, M R, Ovaysi, S, Parks, M L, Pasquali, A, Pastora, L E, Pencheva, G, Pennell, K D, Perego, M, Perkins, W A, Person, M, Peterman, A H, Petersen, R T, Phan, S, Pike, D Q, Prigiobbe, V, Prodanovic, M, Pyrak-Nolte, L J, Quintanilla, H, Raduha, S, Rakowski, C L, Ramos, M J, Reber, J E, Reddy, P R, Requeiro, R A, Richmond, M C, Rinehart, A G, Roach, C M, Roberts, M, Romanak, K D, Romanov, V N, Romero-Gomez, P, Ruoff, R S, Sanford, R A, Santamarina, J C, Santillan, E F U, Sathaye, K J, Scheibe, T D, Schonherr, M, Sen, M K, Senthilnathan, S, Serkowski, J A, Shafiei, M, Shanahan, T M, Shao, S, Sheehan, B, Sheikh, A H El, Shi, Z, Shovkun, I A, Singh, G, Singh, R, Slottke, D T, Sobolik, S, Srinivasan, S, Stadler, G, Stauffer, P H, Stockli, D F, Stormont, J, Strack, E A, Strathmann, T J, Suarez-Rivera, R, Sun, Z, Sun, Y, Sun, A, Sun, T, Sweetser, J D, Taha, M Reda, Tang, H, Tang, Y, Tartakovsky, A M, Tartakovsky, G D, Tavakoli, R, Tavener, S, Tenney, C M, Thomassen, D, Tian, X, Tran, V, Trask, N, Trevisan, L, Truskett, T M, Tsotsis, T T, Turner, D Z, Ureña-Benavides, E E, Valocchi, A J, Vohralik, M, Wang, L, Wang, W, Wang, B, Wang, W H, Wang, Y, Wen, B, Werth, C J, Wheeler, M, White, D, Wick, T, Wietsma, T W, Wildey, T, Wilson, A, Wilson, Jennifer, Wolfe, W, Worthen, A J, Xiao, H, Xue, Z, Xue, G, Yang, C, Yang, X, Yoon, H, Yoon, K Y, Yotov, I A, Youl, A, Youl, K, Yu, G, Zhang, L, Zhang, C, Zhang, R, Zhen, T, and Zhu, W. Fri . "Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security. Final Report". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1503847. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1503847.
@article{osti_1503847,
title = {Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security. Final Report},
author = {Akhbari, D. and Akkutlu, Y and Altman, S. J. and Aman, M and Aminzadeh, B and Arbogast, T. and Bagaria, H. G. and Balhoff, M and Bauer, S. J. and Bennett, P. C. and Bhagmane, J. and Bielawski, C. W. and Bishop, J. E. and Biswal, S. L. and Bollinger, J. A. and Bowden, M. E. and Boyd, V. and Broome, S. T. and Bryant, S. and Bryndzia, T and Butler, D and Cardenas, B and Cassidy, M and Cha, M and Chan, M.A. and Chang, C and Chaudhary, k and Chen, X. and Chen, H and Chen, Y and Chini, G. P. and Choens, C and Chojnicki, Kirsten and Chung, D H and Cole, D. R. and Cornell, K. A. and Craddock, P and Criscenti, L. J. and Cui, L and Cygan, R T and Daigle, H and Daniel, S R and Davison, S M and Dehghanpour, H and Delshad, M and Deng, W and Dewers, T A and DiCarlo, D and Dong, J and Duan, Z and Eichhubl, P and Elhag, A S and Ellison, C J and Espinoza, D N and Estep, D and Evans, J and Fanizza, M F and Foster, L M and Foster, E L and Fouke, B W and Ganis, B and Geier, M and Ghosh, R and Gilbert, K and Gomez, S and Guiltinan, E J and Hackley, P C and Hardy, C D and Hart, D B and Hayman, N W and He, B and Heath, J E and Hernandez-Uribe, L. Alberto and Hess, N J and Hesse, M A and Hirasaki, G J and Ho, T A and Ho, J and Hosseini, S A and Hu, M and Huang, C S and Hueckel, T and Huh, C and Hung, C H and Ilgen, A G and Illangasekare, T. H. and Ingram, D R and Iqbal, M and Islan, A and Jammoul, M and Javier, K J and Jensen, E W and Jessen, K and Jiang, H and Jin, S and Joekar-Niasar, V and Johnston, K P and Jung, J and Jung, H and Juntunen, M and Kang, Q and Katz, L and Kelemen, P B and Kelkar, C W and Kelly, E D and Ketcham, R A and Kharaka, Y K and Kianinejad, A and Killough, J E and Kim, S and Kim, K and Kim, M F and Kirk, M F and Kitnidis, P and Kmetz, A A and Kneafsey, T J and Kobos, P and Kong, X and Kotsmar, C and Krafczyk, M and Krishnamurthy, P G and Kruichak, J N and Kucala, A and Kumar, K and Kwok, A and Lake, L and Larson, E S and Larson, T E and Lee, S and Lee, Y J and Lee, J and Lee, W and Leist, E A and Leung, W and Leung, J Y and Leung, Y and Liang, Y and Lin, E L and Lisabeth, H P and Liu, R and Liu, H and Liu, Z C and Lotfollahi, M and Luo, L S and Lützenkirchen, J and Lyon, B A and Ma, K and Maisano, J A and Major, J R and Martinez, M J and Matteo, E and McFadden, C and McGrath, L K and McKenna, S A and McNeece, C J and Meckel, T A and Mehmani, A and Mehmani, Y and Merino, E and Metaxas, A E and Mikelić, A and Milner, T E and Mirzaei, M and Moaseri, E and Mozley, P S and Myshakin, E M and Nakshatrala, K B and Neilson, B M and Newell, P and Nguyen, Q P and Noble, D R and Noguera, J A and Olson, J E and Omelon, C R and Oostrom, M and Ortiz, M R and Ovaysi, S and Parks, M L and Pasquali, A and Pastora, L E and Pencheva, G and Pennell, K D and Perego, M and Perkins, W A and Person, M and Peterman, A H and Petersen, R T and Phan, S and Pike, D Q and Prigiobbe, V and Prodanovic, M and Pyrak-Nolte, L J and Quintanilla, H and Raduha, S and Rakowski, C L and Ramos, M J and Reber, J E and Reddy, P R and Requeiro, R A and Richmond, M C and Rinehart, A G and Roach, C M and Roberts, M and Romanak, K D and Romanov, V N and Romero-Gomez, P and Ruoff, R S and Sanford, R A and Santamarina, J C and Santillan, E F U and Sathaye, K J and Scheibe, T D and Schonherr, M and Sen, M K and Senthilnathan, S and Serkowski, J A and Shafiei, M and Shanahan, T M and Shao, S and Sheehan, B and Sheikh, A H El and Shi, Z and Shovkun, I A and Singh, G and Singh, R and Slottke, D T and Sobolik, S and Srinivasan, S and Stadler, G and Stauffer, P H and Stockli, D F and Stormont, J and Strack, E A and Strathmann, T J and Suarez-Rivera, R and Sun, Z and Sun, Y and Sun, A and Sun, T and Sweetser, J D and Taha, M Reda and Tang, H and Tang, Y and Tartakovsky, A M and Tartakovsky, G D and Tavakoli, R and Tavener, S and Tenney, C M and Thomassen, D and Tian, X and Tran, V and Trask, N and Trevisan, L and Truskett, T M and Tsotsis, T T and Turner, D Z and Ureña-Benavides, E E and Valocchi, A J and Vohralik, M and Wang, L and Wang, W and Wang, B and Wang, W H and Wang, Y and Wen, B and Werth, C J and Wheeler, M and White, D and Wick, T and Wietsma, T W and Wildey, T and Wilson, A and Wilson, Jennifer and Wolfe, W and Worthen, A J and Xiao, H and Xue, Z and Xue, G and Yang, C and Yang, X and Yoon, H and Yoon, K Y and Yotov, I A and Youl, A and Youl, K and Yu, G and Zhang, L and Zhang, C and Zhang, R and Zhen, T and Zhu, W},
abstractNote = {For the past two decades a slowly growing consensus has been that rising temperature is being caused by increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere. What is less consensual is what to do about it. Solutions range from reducing emissions to various ways to capture CO2 (from effluents of power plants, as plants, etc.) and store it away from the atmosphere. The problem is of such magnitude that it is likely that we will need many methods. Also some methods would cause draconian harm to global economies. This work is about the storage part of the reducing of CO2 in the atmosphere. There have been many methods proposed for storing CO2: in vegetation, at the bottom of oceans, in land farms, and in subsurface formations. The latter is particularly prominent given the large estimated volume in porous formation in the Earth, and the 50-year old experience in injecting CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. This report is about the science behind subsurface storage, called here geological carbon storage or GCS. Effective GCS requires that billions of metric tons of CO2 be injected into storage reservoirs annually. GCS feasibility requires balancing the opposing impacts of large emplacement (injection) rates without compromising caprock seal integrity during injection. Once injected, the challenge is to assure the injected CO2 remains permanently stored. Under most conditions, CO2 is in a supercritical state, or scCO2. scCO2 is immiscible with the subsurface brine and has a factor of ten smaller viscosity, leading to the development of two-phase fluid flow and scCO2 bypassing. After the injection of large volumes of scCO2, the pore pressure, state of stress, chemical, thermal, and biological steady-state or equilibrium conditions in the subsurface are disrupted, which may lead to unpredictable behavior because the responses to these changes are often non-linear. Current challenges for efficient and reliable scCO2 storage are: (1) sustaining large injection rates; (2) using available pore space efficiently, and (3) controlling undesired or unexpected behavior, such as scCO2 leakage. Various aspects of these challenges are addressed by collaborative projects within Center for Frontiers in Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES). Challenge 1 Sustaining large storage rates To offset the annual CO2 emissions of in the United States, ~7 billion metric tons of CO2 must be injected into the storage reservoirs annually. Injected CO2 forms a plume that starts spreading, displacing originally resident brine, though inefficiently so. Because of its low viscosity, and buoyant forces, a CO2 plume rises to the reservoir rock-caprock interface. Injecting large volumes of scCO2 at sufficiently high rates into subsurface storage formations leads to increases in pore pressures, potential expansion of the reservoir rock, and may result in fracturing of the reservoir rock and/or caprock. CFSES research uses existing and new experimental and modeling approaches to identify chemical-physical controls on the permeability and pore pressure dynamics, anticipating geomechanical (fracturing) events, predicting multi-phase flow patterns and trapping of CO2. Challenge 2 – Using pore space with unprecedented efficiency Since large volumes of scCO2 are to be stored, the volume available in storage reservoirs must be used efficiently. Storage efficiency is defined as a fraction of pore space occupied by carbon dioxide. Current estimates are that less than 5 percent of available pore volume is available for storage because scCO2, having a smaller density and viscosity than reservoir brine, tends to form viscous fingers, and bypass available pore space. This flow regime results in a CO2 plume spreading over large areas in subsurface. The research goal in Challenge 2 is to advance the fundamental understanding of two-phase flow through porous media, including molecular-to meter- scale experimental and modeling approaches. This work leads to novel strategies to ensure that injected CO2 occupies more than 5% of the pore space, ideally up to 50%. Challenge 3 – Controlling undesired or unexpected behavior Following the injection of scCO2, the subsurface reservoir re-equilibrates to different physical and chemical states. This re-equilibration in space and time could lead to unexpected and/or undesired behavior: fracturing of reservoir rock and/or caprock, development of preferential flow paths, CO2 leakage (to the surface or overlaying fresh water reservoirs), induced seismicity, and activation of faults. One of the main research goals of CFSES was to advance the fundamental understanding of how individual chemical and physical processes are coupled. We particularly focused on the chemical-mechanical coupling, and flow-mechanical coupling. We collected experimental and modeling data to determine the temporal and spatial scales of the coupled processes, which may lead to pore collapse caused by creep, activation of fractures and faults, chemically-induced fracture propagation, and self-focusing of scCO2 flow.},
doi = {10.2172/1503847},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1503847}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}