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Title: HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINES FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

Abstract

This project with Cummins supports the development of next generation heavy duty diesel engines that can achieve a 50% or better Break Thermal Efficiency (BTE). The fuel efficiency roadmap for the 50% BTE engine considers six main areas for efficiency improvement in the baseline engine, several of which involve making more efficient use of thermal energy (heat) in the engine. Increased operating temperatures and improved thermal management are expected to enable significant increases in $power$ $density$, thus resulting in greater power output for the same sized engine or engine downsizing (or light weighting) for the same power output. However, it has become apparent that several key components will be exposed to temperatures beyond the capabilities of current engine and exhaust materials, requiring the availability of the next generation of high temperature materials to allow the engine to reach the targeted efficiencies, commercially viable durability, and emission targets. The objective of this project was to identify and/or develop key materials, and evaluate their critical properties to enable the design and development of a lightweight, higher efficiency engine, with enhanced temperature capability and reduced heat-loss to the atmosphere in order to facilitate waste heat recovery and improved efficiency. An increase in themore » temperature capability of exhaust manifold materials, and piston materials were identified as having a positive influence on the efficiency of the next generation diesel engines. Since the current materials (High SiMo cast irons used in exhaust manifolds, and 4140 steel in pistons) are already operating near their limits of their temperature and strength capabilities, it was determined that new materials with the right combination of properties are required for these components. Oxidation and constrained thermal fatigue tests were used to down-select CF8C plus (CF8CP), a cast austenitic stainless steel, for exhaust manifolds capable of operating at higher temperatures. A prototype exhaust manifold was fabricated using CF8CP and successfully tested in a marine engine. A functionally graded multiple-layer thermal barrier coating system was designed with four layers of mixed bondcoat alloy (NiCoCrAlYHfSi) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and was shown to reduce the effective thermal conductivity of the coating-substrate (steel and Ti-6Al-4V) system. The graded alloy and YSZ mixture were intended to achieve better match of thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) and minimize thermal stresses. Such coatings can increase the temperature capability of pistons fabricated from steel and Ti-alloys. Effect of oil additives and friction conformal contact friction tests showed there was a 15-30% reduction in friction by the polymer-graphite composite coating compared to the uncoated steel piston. Standalone Mn-P coating had little beneficial impact. Changing the oil from CJ-4 to PC-11 had little impact on the friction behavior in boundary lubrication. Wear behavior was tested under a point contact configuration with a high contact pressure. The candidate CK-4 oil showed similar or slightly better lubricity compared to the CJ-4 oil while the candidate FA-4 oil decisively increased the piston skirt wear. Although both coatings prevented scuffing failure observed for the uncoated steel skirt in a base oil without an additive package, they surprisingly caused a higher piston wear rate when tested in any of the fully formulated engine oil. The detrimental impact was attributed to the Mn-P film, either as a standalone coating, or a coating interlayer. The porous and brittle Mn-P film was broken during the wear test and the released hard Mn-P grains are suspected to cause third-body abrasion to accelerate the wear process. This work also evaluated the feasibility of developing an improved high temperature, low mass, cost-neutral turbocharger compressor wheel for heavy-duty engine applications from TiAl using additive manufacturing, utilizing its unique ability to fabricate high strength, low weight structures. This work has shown that the phase transforming nature of the TiAl alloys enable obtaining equiaxed microstructures in the as-built state without the need for tedious beam parameter manipulations. The HIPed structures have good RT tensile properties that will enable them to be surface machined to the required tolerance that can 2 then be heat treated to obtain the desired microstructures. Additionally, the negligible residual stresses stemming from the high build chamber temperatures ensure the parts are formed without cracks (one of the major issues in traditional manufacturing of these intermetallics).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Cummins Engine Company, Columbus, IN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1502549
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2018/1081
CRADA/NFE-11-03264
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Brady, Michael P., Shyam, Amit, Qu, Jun, Cakmak, Ercan, Watkins, Thomas R., Haynes, James A., England, Roger D., Chen, Y. C., Trobaugh, C., and Wang, Hsin. HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINES FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1502549.
Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Brady, Michael P., Shyam, Amit, Qu, Jun, Cakmak, Ercan, Watkins, Thomas R., Haynes, James A., England, Roger D., Chen, Y. C., Trobaugh, C., & Wang, Hsin. HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINES FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS. United States. doi:10.2172/1502549.
Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Brady, Michael P., Shyam, Amit, Qu, Jun, Cakmak, Ercan, Watkins, Thomas R., Haynes, James A., England, Roger D., Chen, Y. C., Trobaugh, C., and Wang, Hsin. Thu . "HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINES FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS". United States. doi:10.2172/1502549. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1502549.
@article{osti_1502549,
title = {HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINES FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS},
author = {Muralidharan, Govindarajan and Brady, Michael P. and Shyam, Amit and Qu, Jun and Cakmak, Ercan and Watkins, Thomas R. and Haynes, James A. and England, Roger D. and Chen, Y. C. and Trobaugh, C. and Wang, Hsin},
abstractNote = {This project with Cummins supports the development of next generation heavy duty diesel engines that can achieve a 50% or better Break Thermal Efficiency (BTE). The fuel efficiency roadmap for the 50% BTE engine considers six main areas for efficiency improvement in the baseline engine, several of which involve making more efficient use of thermal energy (heat) in the engine. Increased operating temperatures and improved thermal management are expected to enable significant increases in $power$ $density$, thus resulting in greater power output for the same sized engine or engine downsizing (or light weighting) for the same power output. However, it has become apparent that several key components will be exposed to temperatures beyond the capabilities of current engine and exhaust materials, requiring the availability of the next generation of high temperature materials to allow the engine to reach the targeted efficiencies, commercially viable durability, and emission targets. The objective of this project was to identify and/or develop key materials, and evaluate their critical properties to enable the design and development of a lightweight, higher efficiency engine, with enhanced temperature capability and reduced heat-loss to the atmosphere in order to facilitate waste heat recovery and improved efficiency. An increase in the temperature capability of exhaust manifold materials, and piston materials were identified as having a positive influence on the efficiency of the next generation diesel engines. Since the current materials (High SiMo cast irons used in exhaust manifolds, and 4140 steel in pistons) are already operating near their limits of their temperature and strength capabilities, it was determined that new materials with the right combination of properties are required for these components. Oxidation and constrained thermal fatigue tests were used to down-select CF8C plus (CF8CP), a cast austenitic stainless steel, for exhaust manifolds capable of operating at higher temperatures. A prototype exhaust manifold was fabricated using CF8CP and successfully tested in a marine engine. A functionally graded multiple-layer thermal barrier coating system was designed with four layers of mixed bondcoat alloy (NiCoCrAlYHfSi) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and was shown to reduce the effective thermal conductivity of the coating-substrate (steel and Ti-6Al-4V) system. The graded alloy and YSZ mixture were intended to achieve better match of thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) and minimize thermal stresses. Such coatings can increase the temperature capability of pistons fabricated from steel and Ti-alloys. Effect of oil additives and friction conformal contact friction tests showed there was a 15-30% reduction in friction by the polymer-graphite composite coating compared to the uncoated steel piston. Standalone Mn-P coating had little beneficial impact. Changing the oil from CJ-4 to PC-11 had little impact on the friction behavior in boundary lubrication. Wear behavior was tested under a point contact configuration with a high contact pressure. The candidate CK-4 oil showed similar or slightly better lubricity compared to the CJ-4 oil while the candidate FA-4 oil decisively increased the piston skirt wear. Although both coatings prevented scuffing failure observed for the uncoated steel skirt in a base oil without an additive package, they surprisingly caused a higher piston wear rate when tested in any of the fully formulated engine oil. The detrimental impact was attributed to the Mn-P film, either as a standalone coating, or a coating interlayer. The porous and brittle Mn-P film was broken during the wear test and the released hard Mn-P grains are suspected to cause third-body abrasion to accelerate the wear process. This work also evaluated the feasibility of developing an improved high temperature, low mass, cost-neutral turbocharger compressor wheel for heavy-duty engine applications from TiAl using additive manufacturing, utilizing its unique ability to fabricate high strength, low weight structures. This work has shown that the phase transforming nature of the TiAl alloys enable obtaining equiaxed microstructures in the as-built state without the need for tedious beam parameter manipulations. The HIPed structures have good RT tensile properties that will enable them to be surface machined to the required tolerance that can 2 then be heat treated to obtain the desired microstructures. Additionally, the negligible residual stresses stemming from the high build chamber temperatures ensure the parts are formed without cracks (one of the major issues in traditional manufacturing of these intermetallics).},
doi = {10.2172/1502549},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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