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Title: Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Laboratory Collaboration - FY2018 Final Report

Abstract

High-value R2R processing is used to support a wide range of products in applications which span many industrial business sectors. The overall R2R process technology can be considered as “mature” as the process methodology and has been in use for decades. This continuous processing technique traditionally involves deposition of material(s) onto moving webs or carriers or other continuous R2R, belt-fed, or conveyor-based processes that enable successive steps to build a final version which serves to support the deposited materials. Current process technologies, which typify “roll to roll”, include tape casting, silk-screen printing, reel-to-reel vacuum deposition/coating and R2R lithography. Products supported by R2R manufacturing include micro-electronics, electro-chromic window films, PVs, fuel cells for energy conversion, battery electrodes for energy storage, and barrier materials. Due to innovation in materials and process equipment, high-quality yet very low-cost multi-layer technologies can be manufactured on a very cost-competitive basis. To move energy-related products from high-cost niche applications to the commercial sector, a means must be available to enable manufacture of these products in a cost-competitive manner that is affordable by the general consumer. Fortunately, products such as fuel cells, thin- and mid-film PVs, batteries, electrochromic and piezoelectric films, water separation membranes, and other energy savingmore » technologies readily lend themselves to manufacture using R2R approaches.Within the DOE EERE AMO, it was recognized that establishment of a program supported at the DOE National Laboratories, along with their immense design of materials and equipment modelling capabilities enabled with use of high-performance computing, could take advantage of available R2R infrastructure to manufacture new technologies. In FY 2016, a R2R Consortium was established and provided with initial “seed” funding to take an approach that was envisioned to be supportable by advanced manufacturing R2R processes. This collaborative approach was designed to foster identification and development of materials and processes related to R2R for clean-energy product development. Using computational and experimental capabilities by acknowledged subject matter experts within the supported National Laboratory system, this collaborative project would leverage the capabilities and expertise at each of four laboratories to further the development of an enabling high-volume cost-competitive platform technology. The collaboration team that is comprised of ORNL, ANL, NREL and LBNL, coordinating with EPB and other selected industry partners, was formed in April 2016 to initially address enhancing battery electrode performance and R2R manufacturing challenges. The research efforts were to predict and measure changes and results in electrode morphology and performance based on process condition changes; to evaluate mixed, active, particle size deposition and drying for novel electrode materials; to model various process condition changes and the resulting morphology and electrode performance; and to develop and validate NDE techniques for in-line measurement of battery electrode material properties. These efforts carried through FY 2017 and completed at the end of FY 2018.The approach was to look at compositions of materials with different particle sizes to make electrode samples using a R2R manufacturing process. The shape, size, and morphology of the materials, the chemistry of the formulation, the nature of slurries, their coating rate, the rate of drying all play a role in determining the final coating architecture, quality, and performance. A commercial cathode material was selected to make a series of cathodes and anodes by single pass, dual pass and slot die methods. Analysis of all the compiled results for this battery electrode development were that the best performing cathodes included: dual-pass electrode with large particles near the foil, mixed small and large particles, and small particles only. Whereas, the best performing anodes were with a mix of small and large graphite particles. An additional core project was added in FY 2017 to conduct studies of fuel cell materials that can be produced using R2R processes. The goal of this project is to explore, understand and optimize material and process parameters to support increased throughput, increased quality, and reduced cost for high volume production of gas-diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for PEMFCs. Project work in FY 2018 were to use a R2R process to fabricate electrodes without ionomer overlayer that can produce the equivalent mass activity as spray-coated electrodes with an ionomer overlayer. Oxygen-limiting current measurements were utilized to optimize oxygen mass transport. Alcohol-rich solvents were investigated, and results were that the alcohol and water ratio can be tuned to control ionomer distribution. Water-rich solvents produce a more dispersed ink which results in better high-current density performance.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1502542
Report Number(s):
ORNL/SPR-2019/1066
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Daniel, Claus, Wood III, David, Krumdick, Gregory, Ulsh, Michael, Battaglia, Vince, and Crowson, Fred. Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Laboratory Collaboration - FY2018 Final Report. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1502542.
Daniel, Claus, Wood III, David, Krumdick, Gregory, Ulsh, Michael, Battaglia, Vince, & Crowson, Fred. Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Laboratory Collaboration - FY2018 Final Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1502542.
Daniel, Claus, Wood III, David, Krumdick, Gregory, Ulsh, Michael, Battaglia, Vince, and Crowson, Fred. Tue . "Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Laboratory Collaboration - FY2018 Final Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1502542. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1502542.
@article{osti_1502542,
title = {Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Laboratory Collaboration - FY2018 Final Report},
author = {Daniel, Claus and Wood III, David and Krumdick, Gregory and Ulsh, Michael and Battaglia, Vince and Crowson, Fred},
abstractNote = {High-value R2R processing is used to support a wide range of products in applications which span many industrial business sectors. The overall R2R process technology can be considered as “mature” as the process methodology and has been in use for decades. This continuous processing technique traditionally involves deposition of material(s) onto moving webs or carriers or other continuous R2R, belt-fed, or conveyor-based processes that enable successive steps to build a final version which serves to support the deposited materials. Current process technologies, which typify “roll to roll”, include tape casting, silk-screen printing, reel-to-reel vacuum deposition/coating and R2R lithography. Products supported by R2R manufacturing include micro-electronics, electro-chromic window films, PVs, fuel cells for energy conversion, battery electrodes for energy storage, and barrier materials. Due to innovation in materials and process equipment, high-quality yet very low-cost multi-layer technologies can be manufactured on a very cost-competitive basis. To move energy-related products from high-cost niche applications to the commercial sector, a means must be available to enable manufacture of these products in a cost-competitive manner that is affordable by the general consumer. Fortunately, products such as fuel cells, thin- and mid-film PVs, batteries, electrochromic and piezoelectric films, water separation membranes, and other energy saving technologies readily lend themselves to manufacture using R2R approaches.Within the DOE EERE AMO, it was recognized that establishment of a program supported at the DOE National Laboratories, along with their immense design of materials and equipment modelling capabilities enabled with use of high-performance computing, could take advantage of available R2R infrastructure to manufacture new technologies. In FY 2016, a R2R Consortium was established and provided with initial “seed” funding to take an approach that was envisioned to be supportable by advanced manufacturing R2R processes. This collaborative approach was designed to foster identification and development of materials and processes related to R2R for clean-energy product development. Using computational and experimental capabilities by acknowledged subject matter experts within the supported National Laboratory system, this collaborative project would leverage the capabilities and expertise at each of four laboratories to further the development of an enabling high-volume cost-competitive platform technology. The collaboration team that is comprised of ORNL, ANL, NREL and LBNL, coordinating with EPB and other selected industry partners, was formed in April 2016 to initially address enhancing battery electrode performance and R2R manufacturing challenges. The research efforts were to predict and measure changes and results in electrode morphology and performance based on process condition changes; to evaluate mixed, active, particle size deposition and drying for novel electrode materials; to model various process condition changes and the resulting morphology and electrode performance; and to develop and validate NDE techniques for in-line measurement of battery electrode material properties. These efforts carried through FY 2017 and completed at the end of FY 2018.The approach was to look at compositions of materials with different particle sizes to make electrode samples using a R2R manufacturing process. The shape, size, and morphology of the materials, the chemistry of the formulation, the nature of slurries, their coating rate, the rate of drying all play a role in determining the final coating architecture, quality, and performance. A commercial cathode material was selected to make a series of cathodes and anodes by single pass, dual pass and slot die methods. Analysis of all the compiled results for this battery electrode development were that the best performing cathodes included: dual-pass electrode with large particles near the foil, mixed small and large particles, and small particles only. Whereas, the best performing anodes were with a mix of small and large graphite particles. An additional core project was added in FY 2017 to conduct studies of fuel cell materials that can be produced using R2R processes. The goal of this project is to explore, understand and optimize material and process parameters to support increased throughput, increased quality, and reduced cost for high volume production of gas-diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for PEMFCs. Project work in FY 2018 were to use a R2R process to fabricate electrodes without ionomer overlayer that can produce the equivalent mass activity as spray-coated electrodes with an ionomer overlayer. Oxygen-limiting current measurements were utilized to optimize oxygen mass transport. Alcohol-rich solvents were investigated, and results were that the alcohol and water ratio can be tuned to control ionomer distribution. Water-rich solvents produce a more dispersed ink which results in better high-current density performance.},
doi = {10.2172/1502542},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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