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Title: Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography

Abstract

The development of three-dimensional (3D), characterization techniques with high spatial and mass resolution is crucial for understanding and developing advanced materials for many engineering applications as well as for understanding natural materials. In recent decades, atom probe tomography (APT) which combines a point projection microscope and time-of-flight mass spectrometer has evolved to be an excellent characterization technique capable of providing 3D nanoscale characterization of materials with sub-nanometer scale spatial resolution, with equal sensitivity for all elements. This review discusses the current state as of beginning of the year 2016 of APT instrumentation, new developments in sample preparation methods, experimental procedures for different material classes, reconstruction of APT results, the current status of correlative microscopy, and application of APT for microstructural characterization in established scientific areas like structural materials as well as new applications in semiconducting nanowires, semiconductor devices, battery materials, catalyst materials, geological materials and biological materials. Finally, a brief perspective is given regarding the future of APT.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7];  [4];  [8]
  1. Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
  2. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
  3. CAMECA Instruments, Madison, WI, USA
  4. Laboratory of Energy Storage and Conversion, Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
  5. Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA
  6. Materials Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA
  7. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
  8. Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1502425
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-117399
Journal ID: ISSN 0950-6608
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
International Materials Reviews
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 63; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0950-6608
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Atom Probe Tomography, characterization, microstructure,

Citation Formats

Devaraj, Arun, Perea, Daniel E., Liu, Jia, Gordon, Lyle M., Prosa, Ty. J., Parikh, Pritesh, Diercks, David R., Meher, Subhashish, Kolli, R. Prakash, Meng, Ying Shirley, and Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai. Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728.
Devaraj, Arun, Perea, Daniel E., Liu, Jia, Gordon, Lyle M., Prosa, Ty. J., Parikh, Pritesh, Diercks, David R., Meher, Subhashish, Kolli, R. Prakash, Meng, Ying Shirley, & Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai. Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography. United States. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728.
Devaraj, Arun, Perea, Daniel E., Liu, Jia, Gordon, Lyle M., Prosa, Ty. J., Parikh, Pritesh, Diercks, David R., Meher, Subhashish, Kolli, R. Prakash, Meng, Ying Shirley, and Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai. Wed . "Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography". United States. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728.
@article{osti_1502425,
title = {Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography},
author = {Devaraj, Arun and Perea, Daniel E. and Liu, Jia and Gordon, Lyle M. and Prosa, Ty. J. and Parikh, Pritesh and Diercks, David R. and Meher, Subhashish and Kolli, R. Prakash and Meng, Ying Shirley and Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai},
abstractNote = {The development of three-dimensional (3D), characterization techniques with high spatial and mass resolution is crucial for understanding and developing advanced materials for many engineering applications as well as for understanding natural materials. In recent decades, atom probe tomography (APT) which combines a point projection microscope and time-of-flight mass spectrometer has evolved to be an excellent characterization technique capable of providing 3D nanoscale characterization of materials with sub-nanometer scale spatial resolution, with equal sensitivity for all elements. This review discusses the current state as of beginning of the year 2016 of APT instrumentation, new developments in sample preparation methods, experimental procedures for different material classes, reconstruction of APT results, the current status of correlative microscopy, and application of APT for microstructural characterization in established scientific areas like structural materials as well as new applications in semiconducting nanowires, semiconductor devices, battery materials, catalyst materials, geological materials and biological materials. Finally, a brief perspective is given regarding the future of APT.},
doi = {10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728},
journal = {International Materials Reviews},
issn = {0950-6608},
number = 2,
volume = 63,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}

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Evolution of tip shape during field evaporation of complex multilayer structures: EVOLUTION OF TIP SHAPE DURING FIELD EVAPORATION
journal, February 2011


Investigation of the early stages of decomposition of Cu–0.7at.% Fe with the tomographic atom probe
journal, July 2003

  • Heinrich, Alexander; Al-Kassab, Tala'at; Kirchheim, Reiner
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 353, Issue 1-2
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Encapsulation method for atom probe tomography analysis of nanoparticles
journal, December 2015


Efficient sampling for three-dimensional atom probe microscopy data
journal, May 2003


Electron microscope holders for viewing thin wire specimens and field-ion microscope tips
journal, March 1967


Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation
journal, March 2014

  • Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert; Vurpillot, François
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 8
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Stability of ferritic MA/ODS alloys at high temperatures
journal, March 2005


Atom Probe Tomography and field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors: Theoretical issues
journal, October 2013

  • Silaeva, Elena P.; Karahka, Markus; Kreuzer, H. J.
  • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 17, Issue 5
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Prototype evaluation of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part II
journal, January 2007

  • Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.
  • Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design, Vol. 14, Issue 2
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Impurity measurements in silicon with D-SIMS and atom probe tomography
journal, December 2008


Measuring grain-boundary segregation in nanocrystalline alloys: direct validation of statistical techniques using atom probe tomography
journal, June 2007


Influence of instrument conditions on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide with UV laser-assisted atom probe tomography
journal, April 2015


Performance of an energy-compensated three-dimensional atom probe
journal, January 1998

  • Cerezo, A.; Godfrey, T. J.; Sijbrandij, S. J.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 69, Issue 1
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Nanoanalysis and Ion Conductivity of Thin Film Battery Materials
journal, November 2010

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The mechanism of morphogenesis in a phase-separating concentrated multicomponent alloy
journal, February 2007

  • Mao, Zugang; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Yoon, Kevin E.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3
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Preparation of contamination-free tungsten specimens for the field-ion microscope
journal, December 1967


Impact of directional walk on atom probe microanalysis
journal, February 2012


The Strategy of Advanced Analysis in Semiconductor Nano-Device: From Nanoprobing to Nanoscopy and Nanoanalysis
journal, August 2014


Growth-in-place deployment of in-plane silicon nanowires
journal, November 2011

  • Yu, Linwei; Chen, Wanghua; O’Donnell, Benedict
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 20
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Reconstructing atom probe data: A review
journal, September 2013


Conditions to cancel the laser polarization dependence of a subwavelength tip
journal, March 2009

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  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 12
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Growth of Si nanowires on micropillars for the study of their dopant distribution by atom probe tomography
journal, November 2008

  • Xu, T.; Nys, J. P.; Grandidier, B.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 26, Issue 6
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Nanoscale phase separation in epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V alloy thin films studied using atom probe tomography: Comparison of experiments and simulation
journal, November 2014

  • Devaraj, A.; Kaspar, T. C.; Ramanan, S.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 19
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Investigations of field-evaporated end forms in voltage- and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography
journal, April 2009


Revealing the Distribution of the Atoms within Individual Bimetallic Catalyst Nanoparticles
journal, August 2014

  • Felfer, Peter; Benndorf, Paul; Masters, Anthony
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201405043

Compositional pathways and capillary effects during isothermal precipitation in a nondilute Ni–Al–Cr alloy
journal, January 2007


The second revolution in atom probe tomography
journal, February 2012

  • Kelly, Thomas F.; Larson, David J.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 37, Issue 2
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Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts
journal, November 2016

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  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
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Lateral and depth scale calibration of the position sensitive atom probe
journal, March 1994


Laser assisted crystallization of ferromagnetic amorphous ribbons: A multimodal characterization and thermal model study
journal, November 2013

  • Katakam, Shravana; Devaraj, Arun; Bowden, Mark
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 18
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The electric field and the stress on a field-ion specimen
journal, October 1970


Compositional nonuniformities in pulsed laser atom probe tomography analysis of compound semiconductors
journal, March 2012

  • Müller, M.; Smith, G. D. W.; Gault, B.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 6
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Optimization of pulsed laser atom probe (PLAP) for the analysis of nanocomposite Ti–Si–N films
journal, June 2010


Three-dimensional chemical imaging of embedded nanoparticles using atom probe tomography
journal, May 2012


Nanoscale microstructural analysis of metallic materials by atom probe field ion microscopy
journal, January 2002


Impact of dynamic specimen shape evolution on the atom probe tomography results of doped epitaxial oxide multilayers: Comparison of experiment and simulation
journal, August 2015

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  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 9
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Laboratory technology and cosmochemistry
journal, April 2011

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Colossal injection of catalyst atoms into silicon nanowires
journal, April 2013

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Minimization of Ga Induced FIB Damage Using Low Energy Clean-up
journal, July 2006


A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength
journal, April 2016

  • Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
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Characterization of Oxidation and Reduction of a Palladium–Rhodium Alloy by Atom-Probe Tomography
journal, February 2012

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  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 116, Issue 7
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Coarsening kinetics of γ′ precipitates in cobalt-base alloys
journal, June 2013


Characterizing Atomic Composition and Dopant Distribution in Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Nanowires Using Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography
journal, August 2011

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  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, Issue 36
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New Techniques for the Analysis of Fine-Scaled Clustering Phenomena within Atom Probe Tomography (APT) Data
journal, November 2007

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Site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography of grain boundaries
journal, May 2007


Nanoscale chemical tomography of buried organic–inorganic interfaces in the chiton tooth
journal, January 2011


Atomically Resolved Tissue Integration
journal, July 2014

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  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 8
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Field ion microscopy and imaging atom‐probe mass spectroscopy of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 x
journal, November 1987

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  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 51, Issue 22
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Temporal evolution of the nanostructure and phase compositions in a model Ni–Al–Cr alloy
journal, July 2006


Characteristics of cross-sectional atom probe analysis on semiconductor structures
journal, May 2011


Field ion microscopy and pulsed laser atom‐probe mass spectroscopy of insulating glasses
journal, September 1982

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  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 53, Issue 9
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Specimen preparation for correlating transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of mesoscale features
journal, December 2014


Composition analysis of single semiconductor nanowires using pulsed-laser atom probe tomography
journal, September 2006


Approaches for Promoting Accurate Atom Probe Reconstruction
journal, July 2016


The rise of computational techniques in atom probe microscopy
journal, October 2013

  • Ceguerra, Anna V.; Breen, Andrew J.; Stephenson, Leigh T.
  • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 17, Issue 5
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Atom probe tomography spatial reconstruction: Status and directions
journal, October 2013

  • Larson, D. J.; Gault, B.; Geiser, B. P.
  • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 17, Issue 5
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Characterization of Oxidation and Reduction of Pt–Ru and Pt–Rh–Ru Alloys by Atom Probe Tomography and Comparison with Pt–Rh
journal, August 2012

  • Li, Tong; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 116, Issue 33
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Chemical mapping of mammalian cells by atom probe tomography
journal, May 2012


Kinetic-Energy Discrimination for Atom Probe Tomography: Review Article
journal, January 2011


Co-Precipitated and Collocated Carbides and Cu-Rich Precipitates in a Fe–Cu Steel Characterized by Atom-Probe Tomography
journal, September 2014


Structure analysis of a precipitate phase in an Ni-rich high-temperature NiTiHf shape memory alloy
journal, May 2013


Organic Materials and Organic/Inorganic Heterostructures in Atom Probe Tomography
journal, May 2012


Atom probe tomography characterization of solute segregation to dislocations
journal, January 2006

  • Miller, Michael K.
  • Microscopy Research and Technique, Vol. 69, Issue 5
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Linear complexions: Confined chemical and structural states at dislocations
journal, September 2015


Atom-probe for FinFET dopant characterization
journal, May 2011


Identification of an Intrinsic Source of Doping Inhomogeneity in Vapor–Liquid–Solid-Grown Nanowires
journal, December 2012

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  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 1
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Correction of dead time effects in laser-induced desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Applications in atom probe tomography
journal, March 2015

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  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 379
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The temporal evolution of the decomposition of a concentrated multicomponent Fe–Cu-based steel
journal, May 2008


A procedure for quantification of precipitate microstructures from three-dimensional atom probe data
journal, May 2003


Effects of detector dead-time on quantitative analyses involving boron and multi-hit detection events in atom probe tomography
journal, December 2015


Optimized Laser Thermal Pulsing of Atom Probe Tomography: LEAP 4000X™
journal, July 2010


Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes
journal, August 2015

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  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
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3D analysis of advanced nano-devices using electron and atom probe tomography
journal, January 2014


Experimental Evaluation of Conditions Affecting Specimen Survivability in Atom Probe Tomography
journal, August 2015


Embrittlement of RPV steels: An atom probe tomography perspective
journal, September 2007


In situ site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography
journal, February 2007


Atom probe tomography for advanced metallization
journal, May 2014


Subsurface synthesis and characterization of Ag nanoparticles embedded in MgO
journal, February 2013


Analysis of Bulk Dielectrics with Atom Probe Tomography
journal, August 2008


An analytical model accounting for tip shape evolution during atom probe analysis of heterogeneous materials
journal, December 2015


Identification of a Ni0.5(Al0.5−xMnx) B2 phase at the heterophase interfaces of Cu-rich precipitates in an α-Fe matrix
journal, December 2007

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  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 24
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Atom probe crystallography
journal, September 2012


Towards better 3-D reconstructions by combining electron tomography and atom-probe tomography
journal, November 2008