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Title: Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

Abstract

New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
15011422
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-207681
TRN: US200507%%219
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Radiocarbon; Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; ACCURACY; CALENDARS; CALIBRATION; CORALS; FORAMINIFERA; RESOLUTION; SEDIMENTS

Citation Formats

Hughen, K, Baille, M, Bard, E, Beck, J, Bertrand, C, Blackwell, P, Buck, C, Burr, G, Cutler, K, Damon, P, Edwards, R, Fairbanks, R, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, T, Kromer, B, McCormac, F, Manning, S, Bronk-Ramsey, C, Reimer, P, Reimer, R, Remmele, S, Southon, J, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, F, der Plicht, J v, and Weyhenmeyer, C. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP. United States: N. p., 2004. Web.
Hughen, K, Baille, M, Bard, E, Beck, J, Bertrand, C, Blackwell, P, Buck, C, Burr, G, Cutler, K, Damon, P, Edwards, R, Fairbanks, R, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, T, Kromer, B, McCormac, F, Manning, S, Bronk-Ramsey, C, Reimer, P, Reimer, R, Remmele, S, Southon, J, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, F, der Plicht, J v, & Weyhenmeyer, C. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP. United States.
Hughen, K, Baille, M, Bard, E, Beck, J, Bertrand, C, Blackwell, P, Buck, C, Burr, G, Cutler, K, Damon, P, Edwards, R, Fairbanks, R, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, T, Kromer, B, McCormac, F, Manning, S, Bronk-Ramsey, C, Reimer, P, Reimer, R, Remmele, S, Southon, J, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, F, der Plicht, J v, and Weyhenmeyer, C. Mon . "Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15011422.
@article{osti_15011422,
title = {Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP},
author = {Hughen, K and Baille, M and Bard, E and Beck, J and Bertrand, C and Blackwell, P and Buck, C and Burr, G and Cutler, K and Damon, P and Edwards, R and Fairbanks, R and Friedrich, M and Guilderson, T and Kromer, B and McCormac, F and Manning, S and Bronk-Ramsey, C and Reimer, P and Reimer, R and Remmele, S and Southon, J and Stuiver, M and Talamo, S and Taylor, F and der Plicht, J v and Weyhenmeyer, C},
abstractNote = {New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.},
doi = {},
journal = {Radiocarbon},
number = 3,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2004},
month = {Mon Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 2004}
}
  • Radiocarbon calibration curves are essential for converting radiocarbon dated chronologies to the calendar timescale. Prior to the 1980's numerous differently derived calibration curves based on radiocarbon ages of known age material were in use, resulting in ''apples and oranges'' comparisons between various records (Klein et al., 1982), further complicated by until then unappreciated inter-laboratory variations (International Study Group, 1982). The solution was to produce an internationally-agreed calibration curve based on carefully screened data with updates at 4-6 year intervals (Klein et al., 1982; Stuiver and Reimer, 1986; Stuiver and Reimer, 1993; Stuiver et al., 1998). The IntCal working group hasmore » continued this tradition with the active participation of researchers who produced the records that were considered for incorporation into the current, internationally-ratified calibration curves, IntCal04, SHCal04, and Marine04, for Northern Hemisphere terrestrial, Southern Hemisphere terrestrial, and marine samples, respectively (Reimer et al., 2004; Hughen et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004). Fairbanks et al. (2005), accompanied by a more technical paper, Chiu et al. (2005), and an introductory comment, Adkins (2005), recently published a ''calibration curve spanning 0-50,000 years''. Fairbanks et al. (2005) and Chiu et al. (2005) have made a significant contribution to the database on which the IntCal04 and Marine04 calibration curves are based. These authors have now taken the further step to derive their own radiocarbon calibration extending to 50,000 cal BP, which they claim is superior to that generated by the IntCal working group. In their papers, these authors are strongly critical of the IntCal calibration efforts for what they claim to be inadequate screening and sample pretreatment methods. While these criticisms may ultimately be helpful in identifying a better set of protocols, we feel that there are also several erroneous and misleading statements made by these authors which require a response by the IntCal working group. Furthermore, we would like to comment on the sample selection criteria, pretreatment methods, and statistical methods utilized by Fairbanks et al. in derivation of their own radiocarbon calibration.« less
  • Decadal samples of dendrochronologically-dated pine (Lagorostrobos franklinii) from the Stanley River basin, Tasmania have been radiocarbon dated between 2120-850 yr BP. This data set overlaps and extends the current Southern Hemisphere record, which currently covers the period 110-995 yr BP. There is good agreement between the two records between 995-850 yr BP, between sample replicates and with consensus values for standards. As in the younger dataset, we find evidence for a distinct but variable offset between the southern hemisphere data and IntCal04; although this is likely due to real temporal variability in the interhemispheric offset, further work is planned tomore » rule out possible laboratory or sample preparation differences.« less