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Title: LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.

Abstract

Understanding magnetic structures and properties of patterned and ordinary magnetic films at nanometer length-scale is the area of immense technological and fundamental scientific importance. The key feature to such success is the ability to achieve visual quantitative information on domain configurations with a maximum ''magnetic'' resolution. Several methods have been developed to meet these demands (Kerr and Faraday effects, differential phase contrast microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, SEMPA etc.). In particular, the modern off-axis electron holography allows retrieval of the electron-wave phase shifts down to 2{pi}/N (with typical N = 10-20, approaching in the limit N {approx} 100) in TEM equipped with field emission gun, which is already successfully employed for studies of magnetic materials at nanometer scale. However, it remains technically demanding, sensitive to noise and needs highly coherent electron sources. As possible alternative we developed a new method of Lorentz phase microscopy [1,2] based on the Fourier solution [3] of magnetic transport-of-intensity (MTIE) equation. This approach has certain advantages, since it is less sensitive to noise and does not need high coherence of the source required by the holography. In addition, it can be realized in any TEM without basic hardware changes. Our approach considers the electron-wave refraction inmore » magnetic materials (magnetic refraction) and became possible due to general progress in understanding of noninterferometric phase retrieval [4-6] dealing with optical refraction. This approach can also be treated as further development of Fresnel microscopy, used so far for imaging of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials studied by TEM. Figs. 1-3 show some examples of what kind information can be retrieved from the conventional Fresnel images using the new approach. Most of these results can be compared with electron-holographic data. Using this approach we can shed more light on fine details of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials and films studied by TEM. As an example, Fig.4 illustrates the evolution of domain configurations in 25-nm thick Co-elements patterned on silicon nitride membrane as function of applied field, ranging from +70 to -70 Oe. The Lorentz phase microscopy allows better understanding the role of magnetization ripple (41 Oe) in nucleation of reverse domains (28 Oe), or vortex formation (-4.4 Oe) followed by the reverse domains expansion and final annihilation of domain walls (41/-41 Oe) at the sample edges. It is believed that due to technical simplicity the Lorentz phase microscopy will find more applications in the nearest future.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/OFFICE OF SCIENCE (US)
OSTI Identifier:
15007459
Report Number(s):
BNL-72253-2004-CP
R&D Project: MA-015-MACA; KC0201010; TRN: US0401970
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS 2003, SAN ANTONIO, TX (US), 08/03/2003--08/07/2003; Other Information: PBD: 3 Aug 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; ANNIHILATION; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; ELECTRON SOURCES; ELECTRONS; FARADAY EFFECT; FIELD EMISSION; HOLOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC MATERIALS; MAGNETIZATION; MEMBRANES; MICROANALYSIS; MICROSCOPY; NUCLEATION; PHASE SHIFT; REFRACTION; RESOLUTION; SILICON NITRIDES

Citation Formats

VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y. LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.. United States: N. p., 2003. Web.
VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y. LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.. United States.
VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y. Sun . "LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15007459.
@article{osti_15007459,
title = {LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.},
author = {VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y.},
abstractNote = {Understanding magnetic structures and properties of patterned and ordinary magnetic films at nanometer length-scale is the area of immense technological and fundamental scientific importance. The key feature to such success is the ability to achieve visual quantitative information on domain configurations with a maximum ''magnetic'' resolution. Several methods have been developed to meet these demands (Kerr and Faraday effects, differential phase contrast microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, SEMPA etc.). In particular, the modern off-axis electron holography allows retrieval of the electron-wave phase shifts down to 2{pi}/N (with typical N = 10-20, approaching in the limit N {approx} 100) in TEM equipped with field emission gun, which is already successfully employed for studies of magnetic materials at nanometer scale. However, it remains technically demanding, sensitive to noise and needs highly coherent electron sources. As possible alternative we developed a new method of Lorentz phase microscopy [1,2] based on the Fourier solution [3] of magnetic transport-of-intensity (MTIE) equation. This approach has certain advantages, since it is less sensitive to noise and does not need high coherence of the source required by the holography. In addition, it can be realized in any TEM without basic hardware changes. Our approach considers the electron-wave refraction in magnetic materials (magnetic refraction) and became possible due to general progress in understanding of noninterferometric phase retrieval [4-6] dealing with optical refraction. This approach can also be treated as further development of Fresnel microscopy, used so far for imaging of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials studied by TEM. Figs. 1-3 show some examples of what kind information can be retrieved from the conventional Fresnel images using the new approach. Most of these results can be compared with electron-holographic data. Using this approach we can shed more light on fine details of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials and films studied by TEM. As an example, Fig.4 illustrates the evolution of domain configurations in 25-nm thick Co-elements patterned on silicon nitride membrane as function of applied field, ranging from +70 to -70 Oe. The Lorentz phase microscopy allows better understanding the role of magnetization ripple (41 Oe) in nucleation of reverse domains (28 Oe), or vortex formation (-4.4 Oe) followed by the reverse domains expansion and final annihilation of domain walls (41/-41 Oe) at the sample edges. It is believed that due to technical simplicity the Lorentz phase microscopy will find more applications in the nearest future.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {8}
}

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