skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment

Abstract

Calibration of hydroacoustic stations for nuclear explosion monitoring is important for increasing monitoring capability and confidence from newly installed stations and from existing stations. Calibration of hydroacoustic stations is herein defined as the near-field precision location of the hydrophones and determination of the amplitude response; and the regional-scale calibration of acoustic traveltimes, bathymetric shadowing, diffraction, and reflection as recorded at a particular station. An important type of calibration not considered here is ocean-basin-scale calibration of a hydroacoustic monitoring system. To understand how to best conduct hydroacoustic station calibrations, an experiment was conducted in May 1999 at Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The experiment made use of a British oceanographic research vessel towing an airgun array and collected data over three MILS hydrophones that were in use by the National Data Center and the International Data Center. From the towed airgun data we were able to determine the location for each of the three hydrophones to accuracy better than 100 meters in latitude, longitude, and depth. The agreement with the nominal locations was excellent in depth and to within 1 km in latitude and longitude. The depths determined for the hydrophones and the ocean bottom depths determined from themore » ship's sonar system force the conclusion that all three hydrophones are located at or near the ocean bottom. Amplitude frequency response of the hydrophones was also calibrated using a calibrated temporarily deployed hydrophone to determine the airgun source function. With the source function known, the amplitude and phase response of the hydrophones could be deconvolved from the recorded waveforms provided a ''pure'' source waveform arrival is identified on the recording. Unfortunately, since the hydrophones are located near the ocean bottom, the recording is contaminated by reflections and scattered energy, making a reliable deconvolution impossible. Instead, peak-to-peak amplitudes were used at the dominant source energy to determine clip levels and calibration factors (in Pascals at 10 Hz) for each of the three hydrophones. Consistency was confirmed using background hydroacoustic noise. Imploding sphere sources were tested as a potential method to couple hydroacoustic energy directly into the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel (at a nominal depth of 700meters) without the use of explosives. Tests near Ascension Island and off the Pacific coast of California have demonstrated that imploding spheres can be made to fail at prescribed depths and that the signals are similar in amplitude and frequency content to about 1 lb. of high explosive. Although the source has promise as an alternative to small explosions, like explosives, the bulk of the acoustic energy is at frequencies above that of the hydroacoustic monitoring band for nuclear explosions (1-50 Hz). The use of towed airguns for the near-field precision location and amplitude calibration of hydrophones is ideal. The precision of the source location and timing, the ease of obtaining a planned source shot geometry and numerous shots, and the relatively low frequency content of the source (i.e. in the CTBT monitoring band) cannot be equaled with air dropped explosives or most other methods. If the hydrophones are located on the ocean bottom, in-situ calibration is very difficult, ideally requiring a co-located calibrated hydrophone at each hydrophone needing Calibration. This will not be necessary with the new floated hydrophone stations since a ''pure'' recording of the source will be possible. Imploding spheres and small explosive sources in the SOFAR channel need further evaluation as regional calibration sources due to the relatively high frequency content of the source.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
15002082
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JC-138987
TRN: US200408%%65
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 22nd Seismic Research Symposium, New Orleans, LA (US), 09/12/2000--09/15/2000; Other Information: PBD: 11 Jul 2000
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 58 GEOSCIENCES; ACCURACY; ACOUSTICS; ATLANTIC OCEAN; CALIBRATION; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVES; CTBT; DIFFRACTION; EVALUATION; GEOMETRY; METERS; MONITORING; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; REFLECTION; SONAR; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Harben, P E, and Rodgers, A J. Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment. United States: N. p., 2000. Web.
Harben, P E, & Rodgers, A J. Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment. United States.
Harben, P E, and Rodgers, A J. Tue . "Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15002082.
@article{osti_15002082,
title = {Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment},
author = {Harben, P E and Rodgers, A J},
abstractNote = {Calibration of hydroacoustic stations for nuclear explosion monitoring is important for increasing monitoring capability and confidence from newly installed stations and from existing stations. Calibration of hydroacoustic stations is herein defined as the near-field precision location of the hydrophones and determination of the amplitude response; and the regional-scale calibration of acoustic traveltimes, bathymetric shadowing, diffraction, and reflection as recorded at a particular station. An important type of calibration not considered here is ocean-basin-scale calibration of a hydroacoustic monitoring system. To understand how to best conduct hydroacoustic station calibrations, an experiment was conducted in May 1999 at Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The experiment made use of a British oceanographic research vessel towing an airgun array and collected data over three MILS hydrophones that were in use by the National Data Center and the International Data Center. From the towed airgun data we were able to determine the location for each of the three hydrophones to accuracy better than 100 meters in latitude, longitude, and depth. The agreement with the nominal locations was excellent in depth and to within 1 km in latitude and longitude. The depths determined for the hydrophones and the ocean bottom depths determined from the ship's sonar system force the conclusion that all three hydrophones are located at or near the ocean bottom. Amplitude frequency response of the hydrophones was also calibrated using a calibrated temporarily deployed hydrophone to determine the airgun source function. With the source function known, the amplitude and phase response of the hydrophones could be deconvolved from the recorded waveforms provided a ''pure'' source waveform arrival is identified on the recording. Unfortunately, since the hydrophones are located near the ocean bottom, the recording is contaminated by reflections and scattered energy, making a reliable deconvolution impossible. Instead, peak-to-peak amplitudes were used at the dominant source energy to determine clip levels and calibration factors (in Pascals at 10 Hz) for each of the three hydrophones. Consistency was confirmed using background hydroacoustic noise. Imploding sphere sources were tested as a potential method to couple hydroacoustic energy directly into the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel (at a nominal depth of 700meters) without the use of explosives. Tests near Ascension Island and off the Pacific coast of California have demonstrated that imploding spheres can be made to fail at prescribed depths and that the signals are similar in amplitude and frequency content to about 1 lb. of high explosive. Although the source has promise as an alternative to small explosions, like explosives, the bulk of the acoustic energy is at frequencies above that of the hydroacoustic monitoring band for nuclear explosions (1-50 Hz). The use of towed airguns for the near-field precision location and amplitude calibration of hydrophones is ideal. The precision of the source location and timing, the ease of obtaining a planned source shot geometry and numerous shots, and the relatively low frequency content of the source (i.e. in the CTBT monitoring band) cannot be equaled with air dropped explosives or most other methods. If the hydrophones are located on the ocean bottom, in-situ calibration is very difficult, ideally requiring a co-located calibrated hydrophone at each hydrophone needing Calibration. This will not be necessary with the new floated hydrophone stations since a ''pure'' recording of the source will be possible. Imploding spheres and small explosive sources in the SOFAR channel need further evaluation as regional calibration sources due to the relatively high frequency content of the source.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/15002082}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2000},
month = {7}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share: