skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A color x-ray camera for 2–6 keV using a mass produced back illuminated complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor

Abstract

There are several reports in the scientific literature of the use of mass-produced charge coupled device or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors as x-ray detectors that combine high spatial resolution with significant energy resolution. Exploiting a relatively new especially favorable ambient-temperature back-illuminated CMOS sensor, we report the development of a spectroscopic x-ray camera having particularly impressive performance for 2-6 keV photons. This instrument has several beneficial characteristics for advanced x-ray spectroscopy studies in the laboratory, at synchrotron light sources, at x-ray free electron lasers, or when using pulsed x-ray sources such as for laser plasma physics research. These characteristics include fine position and energy resolution for individual photon events, high saturation rates, frame rates above 100 Hz, easy user maintenance for damaged sensors, and software for real-time processing. We evaluate this camera as an alternative to traditional energy-dispersive solid-state detectors, such as silicon drift detectors, and also illustrate its use in a very high resolution wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (i.e., x-ray emission spectrometer) that has recently been reported elsewhere [W. M. Holden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(7), 073904 (2017)].

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560, USA
  2. Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Labs, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Institute of General Medical Sciences
OSTI Identifier:
1496599
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Holden, William M., Hoidn, Oliver R., Seidler, Gerald T., and DiChiara, Anthony D. A color x-ray camera for 2–6 keV using a mass produced back illuminated complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5047934.
Holden, William M., Hoidn, Oliver R., Seidler, Gerald T., & DiChiara, Anthony D. A color x-ray camera for 2–6 keV using a mass produced back illuminated complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5047934.
Holden, William M., Hoidn, Oliver R., Seidler, Gerald T., and DiChiara, Anthony D. Sat . "A color x-ray camera for 2–6 keV using a mass produced back illuminated complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5047934.
@article{osti_1496599,
title = {A color x-ray camera for 2–6 keV using a mass produced back illuminated complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor},
author = {Holden, William M. and Hoidn, Oliver R. and Seidler, Gerald T. and DiChiara, Anthony D.},
abstractNote = {There are several reports in the scientific literature of the use of mass-produced charge coupled device or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors as x-ray detectors that combine high spatial resolution with significant energy resolution. Exploiting a relatively new especially favorable ambient-temperature back-illuminated CMOS sensor, we report the development of a spectroscopic x-ray camera having particularly impressive performance for 2-6 keV photons. This instrument has several beneficial characteristics for advanced x-ray spectroscopy studies in the laboratory, at synchrotron light sources, at x-ray free electron lasers, or when using pulsed x-ray sources such as for laser plasma physics research. These characteristics include fine position and energy resolution for individual photon events, high saturation rates, frame rates above 100 Hz, easy user maintenance for damaged sensors, and software for real-time processing. We evaluate this camera as an alternative to traditional energy-dispersive solid-state detectors, such as silicon drift detectors, and also illustrate its use in a very high resolution wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (i.e., x-ray emission spectrometer) that has recently been reported elsewhere [W. M. Holden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(7), 073904 (2017)].},
doi = {10.1063/1.5047934},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
issn = {0034-6748},
number = 9,
volume = 89,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Works referenced in this record:

The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization
journal, January 2012


The Medipix3 Prototype, a Pixel Readout Chip Working in Single Photon Counting Mode With Improved Spectrometric Performance
journal, October 2007

  • Ballabriga, R.; Campbell, M.; Heijne, E. H. M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 54, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/tns.2007.906163

MHz rate X-Ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors using the LPD detector system
journal, February 2017


A high-energy x-ray spectrometer diagnostic for the OMEGA laser
journal, June 2002

  • Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Deslattes, R. D.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 73, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1476715

Review of superconducting transition-edge sensors for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy
journal, July 2015


An open-loop front-end stage with signal compression capability and improved PSRR for mini-SDD pixel detectors
journal, December 2017


First full dynamic range calibration of the JUNGFRAU photon detector
journal, January 2018


The use and characterization of a backilluminated charge-coupled device in investigations of pulsed x-ray and radiation sources
journal, October 2008

  • Fullagar, Wilfred; Uhlig, Jens; Walczak, Monika
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3000003

A compact dispersive refocusing Rowland circle X-ray emission spectrometer for laboratory, synchrotron, and XFEL applications
journal, July 2017

  • Holden, William M.; Hoidn, Oliver R.; Ditter, Alexander S.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4994739

Particle detection and classification using commercial off the shelf CMOS image sensors
journal, August 2016

  • Pérez, Martín; Lipovetzky, Jose; Sofo Haro, Miguel
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 827
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.04.072

Snapshots of laser wakefields
journal, October 2006

  • Matlis, N. H.; Reed, S.; Bulanov, S. S.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys442

Photometric study of single-shot energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction at a laser plasma facility
journal, January 2014

  • Hoidn, O. R.; Seidler, G. T.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4862558

Development of the DEPFET Sensor With Signal Compression: A Large Format X-Ray Imager With Mega-Frame Readout Capability for the European XFEL
journal, December 2012

  • Porro, M.; Andricek, L.; Aschauer, S.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 59, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1109/tns.2012.2217755

Development of X-ray Thomson scattering for implosion target characterization
journal, December 2011


Demonstration of Spectrally Resolved X-Ray Scattering in Dense Plasmas
journal, May 2003


Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy
journal, April 2016

  • Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4944864

Nanosecond x-ray Laue diffraction apparatus suitable for laser shock compression experiments
journal, August 2010

  • Suggit, Matthew; Kimminau, Giles; Hawreliak, James
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3455211

Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL
journal, May 2014


Characterisation of Redlen high-flux CdZnTe
journal, December 2017


Precision X-ray spectroscopy of intense laser-plasma interactions
journal, June 2011


Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation
journal, November 2013


Maia X-ray Microprobe Detector Array System
journal, April 2014


Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser
journal, January 2018


Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF
journal, October 2012

  • Nagel, S. R.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bell, P. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4732849

Maia X-ray fluorescence imaging: Capturing detail in complex natural samples
journal, April 2014


Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited)
journal, October 2012

  • Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Trantham, M. R.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4731755

Characterization of standard CMOS pixel imagers as ionizing radiation detectors
journal, July 2010


Application of a transmission crystal x-ray spectrometer to moderate-intensity laser driven sources
journal, April 2012

  • Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Hudson, L. T.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3700212

Nanosecond x-Ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials in a pinhole camera geometry suitable for laser shock compression experiments
journal, August 2007

  • Hawreliak, J.; Lorenzana, H. E.; Remington, B. A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 78, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2772210

A new pnCCD-based color X-ray camera for fast spatial and energy-resolved measurements
journal, October 2011

  • Ordavo, I.; Ihle, S.; Arkadiev, V.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 654, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.05.080

X-ray imaging and spectroscopy using low cost COTS CMOS sensors
journal, August 2012

  • Lane, David W.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 284
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.09.007

A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D x-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the inertial confinement fusion
journal, October 2012

  • Labate, L.; Köster, P.; Levato, T.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4759135

Tuning laser plasma x-ray source for single shot microscopy using nano-porous targets
journal, January 2016


Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers
journal, August 2015

  • Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 86, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4929713

Calibration and X-ray spectroscopy with silicon CCDs
journal, May 1990

  • Lumb, David H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 290, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(90)90576-r

Sulfur Speciation in Biochars by Very High Resolution Benchtop Kα X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
journal, May 2018

  • Holden, William M.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Cheah, Singfoong
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 122, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b02816

Medipix3RX: Characterizing the Medipix3 Redesign With Synchrotron Radiation
journal, June 2015

  • Gimenez, Eva N.; Ballabriga, Rafael; Blaj, Gabriel
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 62, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/tns.2015.2425227