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Title: The existence and impact of persistent ferroelectric domains in MAPbI 3

Abstract

Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) exhibits exceptional photovoltaic performance, but there remains substantial controversy over the existence and impact of ferroelectricity on the photovoltaic response. We confirm ferroelectricity in MAPbI 3 single crystals and demonstrate mediation of the electronic response by ferroelectric domain engineering. The ferroelectric response sharply declines above 57°C, consistent with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition. Concurrent band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy–contact Kelvin probe force microscopy shows that the measured response is not dominated by spurious electrostatic interactions. Large signal poling (>16 V/cm) orients the permanent polarization into large domains, which show stabilization over weeks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results indicate a shift of 400 meV in the binding energy of the iodine core level peaks upon poling, which is reflected in the carrier concentration results from scanning microwave impedance microscopy. As a result, the ability to control the ferroelectric response provides routes to increase device stability and photovoltaic performance through domain engineering.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Institut Photovoltaique d'lle de France, Palaiseau (France)
  4. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  5. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Next Generation of Materials by Design: Incorporating Metastability (CNGMD); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1494979
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1560588
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-68090
Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 42 ENGINEERING; MAPbI3; ferroelectricity; photovoltaics

Citation Formats

Garten, Lauren M., Moore, David T., Nanayakkara, Sanjini U., Dwaraknath, Shyam, Schulz, Philip, Wands, Jake, Rockett, Angus, Newell, Brian, Persson, Kristin A., Trolier-McKinstry, Susan, and Ginley, David S. The existence and impact of persistent ferroelectric domains in MAPbI3. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aas9311.
Garten, Lauren M., Moore, David T., Nanayakkara, Sanjini U., Dwaraknath, Shyam, Schulz, Philip, Wands, Jake, Rockett, Angus, Newell, Brian, Persson, Kristin A., Trolier-McKinstry, Susan, & Ginley, David S. The existence and impact of persistent ferroelectric domains in MAPbI3. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aas9311.
Garten, Lauren M., Moore, David T., Nanayakkara, Sanjini U., Dwaraknath, Shyam, Schulz, Philip, Wands, Jake, Rockett, Angus, Newell, Brian, Persson, Kristin A., Trolier-McKinstry, Susan, and Ginley, David S. Fri . "The existence and impact of persistent ferroelectric domains in MAPbI3". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aas9311. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1494979.
@article{osti_1494979,
title = {The existence and impact of persistent ferroelectric domains in MAPbI3},
author = {Garten, Lauren M. and Moore, David T. and Nanayakkara, Sanjini U. and Dwaraknath, Shyam and Schulz, Philip and Wands, Jake and Rockett, Angus and Newell, Brian and Persson, Kristin A. and Trolier-McKinstry, Susan and Ginley, David S.},
abstractNote = {Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) exhibits exceptional photovoltaic performance, but there remains substantial controversy over the existence and impact of ferroelectricity on the photovoltaic response. We confirm ferroelectricity in MAPbI3 single crystals and demonstrate mediation of the electronic response by ferroelectric domain engineering. The ferroelectric response sharply declines above 57°C, consistent with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition. Concurrent band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy–contact Kelvin probe force microscopy shows that the measured response is not dominated by spurious electrostatic interactions. Large signal poling (>16 V/cm) orients the permanent polarization into large domains, which show stabilization over weeks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results indicate a shift of 400 meV in the binding energy of the iodine core level peaks upon poling, which is reflected in the carrier concentration results from scanning microwave impedance microscopy. As a result, the ability to control the ferroelectric response provides routes to increase device stability and photovoltaic performance through domain engineering.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aas9311},
journal = {Science Advances},
issn = {2375-2548},
number = 1,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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Cited by: 8 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy with contact Kelvin probe force microscopy. (A) Image of an as-grown single crystal of MAPbI3 with natural faceting. (B) The cKPFM response as a function of read voltage for a number of write voltages indicated by color. (C) The averaged BE-PFM off-field responsemore » and subsequent write steps as a function of applied DC write voltage. (D) The averaged BE-PFM on-field response and subsequent write steps as a function of applied DC write voltage. a.u., arbitrary units.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.