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Title: High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh

Abstract

The physical controlling factors on coastal plant communities are among the most dynamic of known ecosystems, but climate change alters coastal surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes, which makes rapid measurement of greenhouse gas fluxes critical. Greenhouse gas exchange rates in these terrestrial-aquatic ecosystems are highly variable worldwide with climate, soil type, plant community, and weather. Therefore, increasing data collection and availability should be a priority. Here, we demonstrate and validate physical and analytical modifications to automated soil-flux chamber measurement methods for unattended use in tidally driven wetlands, allowing the high-frequency capture of storm surge and day/night dynamics. Winter CO 2 flux from Sarcocornia perennis marsh to the atmosphere was significantly greater during the day (2.8 mg m -2 h -1) than the night (2.2 mg m -2 h -1) (p < 0.001), while CH 4 was significantly greater during the night (0.16 µg m -2 h -1) than the day (-0.13 µg m -2 h -1) (p = 0.04). The magnitude of CO 2 flux during the day and the frequency of CH 4 flux were reduced during a surge (p < 0.001). Surge did not significantly affect N 2O flux, which without non-detects was normally distributed around 24.2 ngmore » m -2 h -1. Analysis with sustained-flux global potentials and increased storm surge frequency scenarios, 2020 to 2100, suggested that the marsh in winter remains an atmospheric CO 2 sink. The modeled results showed an increased flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere, while in soil, the uptake of CH 4 increased and N 2O uptake decreased. We present analytical routines to correctly capture gas flux curves in dynamic overland flooding conditions and to flag data that are below detection limits or from unobserved chamber-malfunction situations. Storm surge is an important phenomenon globally, but event-driven, episodic factors can be poorly estimated by infrequent sampling. Wider deployment of this system would permit inclusion of surge events in flux estimates.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Coastal Sciences Division, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Washington
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1494299
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-135874
Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
greenhouse gas, salt marsh, storm surge, CO2, soil flux chamber, terrestrial aquatic, terrestrial aquatic interface, sustained-flux global warming potential, global warming potential

Citation Formats

Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., and Thom, Ronald M. High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., & Thom, Ronald M. High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., and Thom, Ronald M. Thu . "High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
@article{osti_1494299,
title = {High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh},
author = {Diefenderfer, Heida L. and Cullinan, Valerie I. and Borde, Amy B. and Gunn, Cailene M. and Thom, Ronald M.},
abstractNote = {The physical controlling factors on coastal plant communities are among the most dynamic of known ecosystems, but climate change alters coastal surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes, which makes rapid measurement of greenhouse gas fluxes critical. Greenhouse gas exchange rates in these terrestrial-aquatic ecosystems are highly variable worldwide with climate, soil type, plant community, and weather. Therefore, increasing data collection and availability should be a priority. Here, we demonstrate and validate physical and analytical modifications to automated soil-flux chamber measurement methods for unattended use in tidally driven wetlands, allowing the high-frequency capture of storm surge and day/night dynamics. Winter CO2 flux from Sarcocornia perennis marsh to the atmosphere was significantly greater during the day (2.8 mg m-2 h-1) than the night (2.2 mg m-2 h-1) (p < 0.001), while CH4 was significantly greater during the night (0.16 µg m-2 h-1) than the day (-0.13 µg m-2 h-1) (p = 0.04). The magnitude of CO2 flux during the day and the frequency of CH4 flux were reduced during a surge (p < 0.001). Surge did not significantly affect N2O flux, which without non-detects was normally distributed around 24.2 ng m-2 h-1. Analysis with sustained-flux global potentials and increased storm surge frequency scenarios, 2020 to 2100, suggested that the marsh in winter remains an atmospheric CO2 sink. The modeled results showed an increased flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, while in soil, the uptake of CH4 increased and N2O uptake decreased. We present analytical routines to correctly capture gas flux curves in dynamic overland flooding conditions and to flag data that are below detection limits or from unobserved chamber-malfunction situations. Storm surge is an important phenomenon globally, but event-driven, episodic factors can be poorly estimated by infrequent sampling. Wider deployment of this system would permit inclusion of surge events in flux estimates.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.14430},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
issn = {1354-1013},
number = 12,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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