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Title: Phase changes in fluoropolymer binders

Abstract

Motivation: Understanding fluoropolymer binder structure and aging response continues to be an important goal for the prediction and assessment of polymer bonded explosive compositions within the stockpile. As part of ongoing efforts within NNM, we are developing new methods to quantify crystallization and chemical degradation within aged Fluoropolymer materials. Significance: Time, temperature and radiation are known to alter the mechanical properties of fluoropolymers as crystalline domains nucleate and grow within the material. However, current methods do not accurately quantify and assess the degree or rapidity of these physical aging processes. For this reason, we are developing methods that directly measure crystalline domain, composition, size and shape and cross-correlating them with traditional techniques. Progress: Most recently, we thermally aged fluoropolymer binder, FK800, for various durations up to 23 days at several temperatures including: 25C (red), 35C (green), and 60C (blue). We used wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) to observe when crystalline peaks emerged, signaling a phase transition from amorphous to partially crystalline. Some of these data are summarized in Figure 1. As expected, samples held at 25C (red), which is below the glass transition temperature at 28C, remain amorphous – the WAXS data (Figure 1b) lacks sharp peaks indicative of crystallinitymore » and the ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) also has a smooth background without peaks indicative of structure (Figure 1a). By contrast, samples held at 35C and 60C have new peaks in both the USAXS and WAXS data. The structure is clearer after subtracting off the amorphous background from the WAXS data (Figure 1c). These data show that samples aged at 60C are more crystalline as determined by the more defined peaks and also have a larger lattice constant as seen by the shift in peak position as compared to the 35C samples. The corresponding USAXS data (Figure 1a) indicate that the size of the crystals was larger at 60C than at 35C as seen by the shift in the knee position to lower q-values. Interestingly, the shape of the scatter curve also changed, which indicates a change in morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the fluoropolymer (Figure 1c-e). At 35C, ~50nm long stacked crystal plates are observed. High resolution imaging shows that the stacks consist of 2-6 lamellae that are spaced approximately 3nm apart. At 60C, the individual lamella appear both thicker and longer and are intertwined to fill the surface. Morphological data such as these images help to interpret & model volume averaging techniques like X-ray scattering and NMR. We also expect the shift from isolated islands to intertwined clusters to impact mechanical properties.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1491962
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-765105
955018
DOE Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Materials science

Citation Formats

Orme, Chris A., Bordia, Gautam, and Lewicki, Jim. Phase changes in fluoropolymer binders. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1491962.
Orme, Chris A., Bordia, Gautam, & Lewicki, Jim. Phase changes in fluoropolymer binders. United States. doi:10.2172/1491962.
Orme, Chris A., Bordia, Gautam, and Lewicki, Jim. Thu . "Phase changes in fluoropolymer binders". United States. doi:10.2172/1491962. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1491962.
@article{osti_1491962,
title = {Phase changes in fluoropolymer binders},
author = {Orme, Chris A. and Bordia, Gautam and Lewicki, Jim},
abstractNote = {Motivation: Understanding fluoropolymer binder structure and aging response continues to be an important goal for the prediction and assessment of polymer bonded explosive compositions within the stockpile. As part of ongoing efforts within NNM, we are developing new methods to quantify crystallization and chemical degradation within aged Fluoropolymer materials. Significance: Time, temperature and radiation are known to alter the mechanical properties of fluoropolymers as crystalline domains nucleate and grow within the material. However, current methods do not accurately quantify and assess the degree or rapidity of these physical aging processes. For this reason, we are developing methods that directly measure crystalline domain, composition, size and shape and cross-correlating them with traditional techniques. Progress: Most recently, we thermally aged fluoropolymer binder, FK800, for various durations up to 23 days at several temperatures including: 25C (red), 35C (green), and 60C (blue). We used wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) to observe when crystalline peaks emerged, signaling a phase transition from amorphous to partially crystalline. Some of these data are summarized in Figure 1. As expected, samples held at 25C (red), which is below the glass transition temperature at 28C, remain amorphous – the WAXS data (Figure 1b) lacks sharp peaks indicative of crystallinity and the ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) also has a smooth background without peaks indicative of structure (Figure 1a). By contrast, samples held at 35C and 60C have new peaks in both the USAXS and WAXS data. The structure is clearer after subtracting off the amorphous background from the WAXS data (Figure 1c). These data show that samples aged at 60C are more crystalline as determined by the more defined peaks and also have a larger lattice constant as seen by the shift in peak position as compared to the 35C samples. The corresponding USAXS data (Figure 1a) indicate that the size of the crystals was larger at 60C than at 35C as seen by the shift in the knee position to lower q-values. Interestingly, the shape of the scatter curve also changed, which indicates a change in morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the fluoropolymer (Figure 1c-e). At 35C, ~50nm long stacked crystal plates are observed. High resolution imaging shows that the stacks consist of 2-6 lamellae that are spaced approximately 3nm apart. At 60C, the individual lamella appear both thicker and longer and are intertwined to fill the surface. Morphological data such as these images help to interpret & model volume averaging techniques like X-ray scattering and NMR. We also expect the shift from isolated islands to intertwined clusters to impact mechanical properties.},
doi = {10.2172/1491962},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}