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Title: 3D Printed Optical Quality Silica and Silica-Titania Glasses from Sol-Gel Feedstocks

Abstract

We report a method for fabricating optical quality silica and silica-titania glasses by additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. Key to this success was the combination of sol-gel derived silica and silica-titania colloidal feedstocks, 3D direct ink writing (DIW) technology, and conventional glass thermal processing methods. Printable silica and silica-titania sol inks were prepared directly from molecular precursors by a simple one-pot method, which was optimized to yield viscous, shear-thinning colloidal suspensions with tuned rheology ideal for DIW. After printing, the parts were dried and sintered under optimized thermal conditions to ensure complete organic removal and uniform densification without crystallization. Characterizations of the 3Dprinted pure silica and silica-titania glasses show that they are equivalent to commercial optical fused silica (Corning® 7980) and silica-titania glasses (Corning ULE® 7972). More specifically they exhibit comparable chemical composition, SiO2 network structure, refractive index, dispersion, optical transmission, and coefficient of thermal expansion. 3D printed silica and silica-titania glasses also exhibited comparable polished surface roughness and meet refractive index homogeneity standards within range of commercial optical grade glasses. This method establishes 3D printing as a viable tool to create optical glasses with compositional and geometric configurations that are inaccessible by conventional optical fabrication methods.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Creighton Univ., Omaha NE (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1491643
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1416399
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-737841
Journal ID: ISSN 2365-709X; 890806
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials Technologies
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2365-709X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Destino, Joel F., Dudukovic, Nikola A., Johnson, Michael A., Nguyen, Du T., Yee, Timothy D., Egan, Garth C., Sawvel, April M., Steele, William A., Baumann, Theodore F., Duoss, Eric B., Suratwala, Tayyab, and Dylla-Spears, Rebecca. 3D Printed Optical Quality Silica and Silica-Titania Glasses from Sol-Gel Feedstocks. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/admt.201700323.
Destino, Joel F., Dudukovic, Nikola A., Johnson, Michael A., Nguyen, Du T., Yee, Timothy D., Egan, Garth C., Sawvel, April M., Steele, William A., Baumann, Theodore F., Duoss, Eric B., Suratwala, Tayyab, & Dylla-Spears, Rebecca. 3D Printed Optical Quality Silica and Silica-Titania Glasses from Sol-Gel Feedstocks. United States. doi:10.1002/admt.201700323.
Destino, Joel F., Dudukovic, Nikola A., Johnson, Michael A., Nguyen, Du T., Yee, Timothy D., Egan, Garth C., Sawvel, April M., Steele, William A., Baumann, Theodore F., Duoss, Eric B., Suratwala, Tayyab, and Dylla-Spears, Rebecca. Mon . "3D Printed Optical Quality Silica and Silica-Titania Glasses from Sol-Gel Feedstocks". United States. doi:10.1002/admt.201700323. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1491643.
@article{osti_1491643,
title = {3D Printed Optical Quality Silica and Silica-Titania Glasses from Sol-Gel Feedstocks},
author = {Destino, Joel F. and Dudukovic, Nikola A. and Johnson, Michael A. and Nguyen, Du T. and Yee, Timothy D. and Egan, Garth C. and Sawvel, April M. and Steele, William A. and Baumann, Theodore F. and Duoss, Eric B. and Suratwala, Tayyab and Dylla-Spears, Rebecca},
abstractNote = {We report a method for fabricating optical quality silica and silica-titania glasses by additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. Key to this success was the combination of sol-gel derived silica and silica-titania colloidal feedstocks, 3D direct ink writing (DIW) technology, and conventional glass thermal processing methods. Printable silica and silica-titania sol inks were prepared directly from molecular precursors by a simple one-pot method, which was optimized to yield viscous, shear-thinning colloidal suspensions with tuned rheology ideal for DIW. After printing, the parts were dried and sintered under optimized thermal conditions to ensure complete organic removal and uniform densification without crystallization. Characterizations of the 3Dprinted pure silica and silica-titania glasses show that they are equivalent to commercial optical fused silica (Corning® 7980) and silica-titania glasses (Corning ULE® 7972). More specifically they exhibit comparable chemical composition, SiO2 network structure, refractive index, dispersion, optical transmission, and coefficient of thermal expansion. 3D printed silica and silica-titania glasses also exhibited comparable polished surface roughness and meet refractive index homogeneity standards within range of commercial optical grade glasses. This method establishes 3D printing as a viable tool to create optical glasses with compositional and geometric configurations that are inaccessible by conventional optical fabrication methods.},
doi = {10.1002/admt.201700323},
journal = {Advanced Materials Technologies},
issn = {2365-709X},
number = 6,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Sol-gel derived DIW SiO2/SiO2-TiO2 glass fabrication scheme. (1) SiO2 particle sol preparation. (2) TiO2-SiO2 core-shell particle preparation. (3) Ink preparation via solvent exchange from particle sol to DIW printable ink. (4) DIW printing of glass preform. (5) Organic removal to low density inorganic glass preform. (6) Sintering tomore » full density optical quality glass (unpolished).« less

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