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Title: Increased Handling Sensitivity of Molten Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN)

Abstract

Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a well-studied homemade explosive (HME), which is known for its ability to be melt-cast at a fairly low temperature. We have observed dramatically increased handling sensitivity of ETN in the molten state, using temperature controlled drop-weight impact sensitivity measurements. Impact testing was performed using ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment using a 2.5 kilogram weight, a 0.8 kilogram striker, an anvil and sound detection equipment. Most experiments were performed in the absence of standard grit paper, due to the elevated temperature measurements with a liquid. At room temperature, ETN exhibited an impact sensitivity of 14.7 ± 3.4 cm, which changed to 1.0 ± 0.6 cm in the liquid state at 65 °C. The change in sensitivity in the liquid state was found to be reversible upon solidification, and did not appear to correlate with temperature. Control experiments were performed in the same setup using standard explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). This is the most sensitive material that we have been able to measure using our instrumentation, and indicates that ETN be handled with extreme caution during the melt-casting process.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490755
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1489981
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-29414
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3894
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; 20180369ER
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Hazardous Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 367; Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3894
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

Citation Formats

Lease, Nicholas, Kay, Lisa, Chavez, David E., Robbins, David, and Manner, Virginia W. Increased Handling Sensitivity of Molten Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN). United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.110.
Lease, Nicholas, Kay, Lisa, Chavez, David E., Robbins, David, & Manner, Virginia W. Increased Handling Sensitivity of Molten Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN). United States. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.110.
Lease, Nicholas, Kay, Lisa, Chavez, David E., Robbins, David, and Manner, Virginia W. Fri . "Increased Handling Sensitivity of Molten Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN)". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.110.
@article{osti_1490755,
title = {Increased Handling Sensitivity of Molten Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN)},
author = {Lease, Nicholas and Kay, Lisa and Chavez, David E. and Robbins, David and Manner, Virginia W.},
abstractNote = {Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a well-studied homemade explosive (HME), which is known for its ability to be melt-cast at a fairly low temperature. We have observed dramatically increased handling sensitivity of ETN in the molten state, using temperature controlled drop-weight impact sensitivity measurements. Impact testing was performed using ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment using a 2.5 kilogram weight, a 0.8 kilogram striker, an anvil and sound detection equipment. Most experiments were performed in the absence of standard grit paper, due to the elevated temperature measurements with a liquid. At room temperature, ETN exhibited an impact sensitivity of 14.7 ± 3.4 cm, which changed to 1.0 ± 0.6 cm in the liquid state at 65 °C. The change in sensitivity in the liquid state was found to be reversible upon solidification, and did not appear to correlate with temperature. Control experiments were performed in the same setup using standard explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). This is the most sensitive material that we have been able to measure using our instrumentation, and indicates that ETN be handled with extreme caution during the melt-casting process.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.110},
journal = {Journal of Hazardous Materials},
issn = {0304-3894},
number = ,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.110

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: (a) 40 mg of ETN placed on the bare anvil set to 65 – 67 °C, (b) Molten ETN after approximately 1 minute on the heated anvil, (c) ETN re-solidifying after cooling the anvil to approximately 40 °C, and (d) completely re-solidified ETN (melt-cast), showing a visible reductionmore » in volume.« less

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Figures / Tables found in this record:

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.