skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Epitaxial growth of ultraflat stanene with topological band inversion

Abstract

Here, two-dimensional (2D) topological materials, including quantum spin/anomalous Hall insulators, have attracted intense research efforts owing to their promise for applications ranging from low-power electronics and high-performance thermoelectrics to fault-tolerant quantum computation. One key challenge is to fabricate topological materials with a large energy gap for room-temperature use. Stanene—the tin counterpart of graphene—is a promising material candidate distinguished by its tunable topological states and sizeable bandgap. Recent experiments have successfully fabricated stanene, but none of them have yet observed topological states. Here we demonstrate the growth of high-quality stanene on Cu(111) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Importantly, we discovered an unusually ultraflat stanene showing an in-plane s–p band inversion together with a spin–orbit-coupling-induced topological gap (~0.3 eV) at the Γ point, which represents a foremost group-IV ultraflat graphene-like material displaying topological features in experiment. The finding of ultraflat stanene opens opportunities for exploring two-dimensional topological physics and device applications.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490654
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1476-1122
Publisher:
Springer Nature - Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Deng, Jialiang, Xia, Bingyu, Ma, Xiaochuan, Chen, Haoqi, Shan, Huan, Zhai, Xiaofang, Li, Bin, Zhao, Aidi, Xu, Yong, Duan, Wenhui, Zhang, Shou -Cheng, Wang, Bing, and Hou, J. G. Epitaxial growth of ultraflat stanene with topological band inversion. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0203-5.
Deng, Jialiang, Xia, Bingyu, Ma, Xiaochuan, Chen, Haoqi, Shan, Huan, Zhai, Xiaofang, Li, Bin, Zhao, Aidi, Xu, Yong, Duan, Wenhui, Zhang, Shou -Cheng, Wang, Bing, & Hou, J. G. Epitaxial growth of ultraflat stanene with topological band inversion. United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0203-5.
Deng, Jialiang, Xia, Bingyu, Ma, Xiaochuan, Chen, Haoqi, Shan, Huan, Zhai, Xiaofang, Li, Bin, Zhao, Aidi, Xu, Yong, Duan, Wenhui, Zhang, Shou -Cheng, Wang, Bing, and Hou, J. G. Mon . "Epitaxial growth of ultraflat stanene with topological band inversion". United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0203-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490654.
@article{osti_1490654,
title = {Epitaxial growth of ultraflat stanene with topological band inversion},
author = {Deng, Jialiang and Xia, Bingyu and Ma, Xiaochuan and Chen, Haoqi and Shan, Huan and Zhai, Xiaofang and Li, Bin and Zhao, Aidi and Xu, Yong and Duan, Wenhui and Zhang, Shou -Cheng and Wang, Bing and Hou, J. G.},
abstractNote = {Here, two-dimensional (2D) topological materials, including quantum spin/anomalous Hall insulators, have attracted intense research efforts owing to their promise for applications ranging from low-power electronics and high-performance thermoelectrics to fault-tolerant quantum computation. One key challenge is to fabricate topological materials with a large energy gap for room-temperature use. Stanene—the tin counterpart of graphene—is a promising material candidate distinguished by its tunable topological states and sizeable bandgap. Recent experiments have successfully fabricated stanene, but none of them have yet observed topological states. Here we demonstrate the growth of high-quality stanene on Cu(111) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Importantly, we discovered an unusually ultraflat stanene showing an in-plane s–p band inversion together with a spin–orbit-coupling-induced topological gap (~0.3 eV) at the Γ point, which represents a foremost group-IV ultraflat graphene-like material displaying topological features in experiment. The finding of ultraflat stanene opens opportunities for exploring two-dimensional topological physics and device applications.},
doi = {10.1038/s41563-018-0203-5},
journal = {Nature Materials},
issn = {1476-1122},
number = 12,
volume = 17,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 23 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Bismuthene on a SiC substrate: A candidate for a high-temperature quantum spin Hall material
journal, June 2017


Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
journal, October 1996

  • Perdew, John P.; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18, p. 3865-3868
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865

Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets
journal, January 2017

  • Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4802

Topological insulators and superconductors
journal, October 2011


Honeycomb lattice with multiorbital structure: Topological and quantum anomalous Hall insulators with large gaps
journal, August 2014


Gapped electronic structure of epitaxial stanene on InSb(111)
journal, January 2018


Projector augmented-wave method
journal, December 1994


Germanene: a novel two-dimensional germanium allotrope akin to graphene and silicene
journal, September 2014


Observation of the quantum spin Hall effect up to 100 kelvin in a monolayer crystal
journal, January 2018


Defect-induced magnetism in graphene
journal, March 2007


Realizing an Epitaxial Decorated Stanene with an Insulating Bandgap
journal, July 2018

  • Zang, Yunyi; Jiang, Tian; Gong, Yan
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201802723

Evidence of Silicene in Honeycomb Structures of Silicon on Ag(111)
journal, June 2012

  • Feng, Baojie; Ding, Zijing; Meng, Sheng
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 7, p. 3507-3511
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl301047g

Experimental Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator
journal, March 2013


Evidence of van Hove Singularities in Ordered Grain Boundaries of Graphene
journal, June 2014


Quantum Spin Hall Insulator State in HgTe Quantum Wells
journal, November 2007


wannier90: A tool for obtaining maximally-localised Wannier functions
journal, May 2008

  • Mostofi, Arash A.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Lee, Young-Su
  • Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 178, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2007.11.016

Colloquium: Topological insulators
journal, November 2010


Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene
journal, November 2005


Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance and Anomalous Seebeck Effects in Topological Insulators
journal, June 2014


Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
journal, October 1996


Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Topological Phase Transition in HgTe Quantum Wells
journal, December 2006

  • Bernevig, B. A.; Hughes, T. L.; Zhang, S.-C.
  • Science, Vol. 314, Issue 5806, p. 1757-1761
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1133734

Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type-II Semiconductors
journal, June 2008


Epitaxial growth of large-gap quantum spin Hall insulator on semiconductor surface
journal, September 2014

  • Zhou, Miao; Ming, Wenmei; Liu, Zheng
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1409701111

Buckled Germanene Formation on Pt(111)
journal, May 2014


Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature
journal, February 2015

  • Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.325

Large-Gap Quantum Spin Hall Insulators in Tin Films
journal, September 2013


Edge conduction in monolayer WTe2
journal, April 2017

  • Fei, Zaiyao; Palomaki, Tauno; Wu, Sanfeng
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4091

Large area planar stanene epitaxially grown on Ag(1 1 1)
journal, January 2018


Superconductivity in few-layer stanene
journal, January 2018


Grains and grain boundaries in single-layer graphene atomic patchwork quilts
journal, January 2011

  • Huang, Pinshane Y.; Ruiz-Vargas, Carlos S.; van der Zande, Arend M.
  • Nature, Vol. 469, Issue 7330, p. 389-392
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09718

Quantum spin Hall effect in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, November 2014


Two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in a doped quantum spin-Hall insulator
journal, August 2014


Stable Nontrivial Z 2 Topology in Ultrathin Bi (111) Films: A First-Principles Study
journal, September 2011


An extended defect in graphene as a metallic wire
journal, March 2010

  • Lahiri, Jayeeta; Lin, You; Bozkurt, Pinar
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.53

Evidence for Helical Edge Modes in Inverted InAs / GaSb Quantum Wells
journal, September 2011


Strain-induced band engineering in monolayer stanene on Sb(111)
journal, October 2017


Silicene: Compelling Experimental Evidence for Graphenelike Two-Dimensional Silicon
journal, April 2012


Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons
journal, November 2006

  • Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.
  • Nature, Vol. 444, Issue 7117
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05180

Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Silicene and Two-Dimensional Germanium
journal, August 2011


Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene
journal, August 2015

  • Zhu, Feng-feng; Chen, Wei-jiong; Xu, Yong
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4384

Flat Bands and Wigner Crystallization in the Honeycomb Optical Lattice
journal, August 2007


Prediction of Near-Room-Temperature Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect on Honeycomb Materials
journal, December 2014


Quantum spin Hall state in monolayer 1T'-WTe2
journal, June 2017

  • Tang, Shujie; Zhang, Chaofan; Wong, Dillon
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4174

Topological states on the gold surface
journal, December 2015

  • Yan, Binghai; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Haag, Norman
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Article No. 10167
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10167

WannierTools: An open-source software package for novel topological materials
journal, March 2018