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Title: An electrochemical thermal transistor

Abstract

The ability to actively regulate heat flow at the nanoscale could be a game changer for applications in thermal management and energy harvesting. Such a breakthrough could also enable the control of heat flow using thermal circuits, in a manner analogous to electronic circuits. Here we demonstrate switchable thermal transistors with an order of magnitude thermal on/off ratio, based on reversible electrochemical lithium intercalation in MoS 2 thin films. We use spatially-resolved time-domain thermoreflectance to map the lithium ion distribution during device operation, and atomic force microscopy to show that the lithiated state correlates with increased thickness and surface roughness. First principles calculations reveal that the thermal conductance modulation is due to phonon scattering by lithium rattler modes, c-axis strain, and stacking disorder. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for electrochemically-driven nanoscale thermal regulators, and establishes thermal metrology as a useful probe of spatio-temporal intercalant dynamics in nanomaterials.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
  5. Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Univ. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)
  6. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Tianjin Univ., Tianjin (China)
  7. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Ikerbasque, Bilbao (Spain)
  8. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490643
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; ECCS-1542152; EFRI 2-DARE: 1542883; POETS ERC: EEC-1449548; FA9550-14-1-0251
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Sood, Aditya, Xiong, Feng, Chen, Shunda, Wang, Haotian, Selli, Daniele, Zhang, Jinsong, McClellan, Connor J., Sun, Jie, Donadio, Davide, Cui, Yi, Pop, Eric, and Goodson, Kenneth E. An electrochemical thermal transistor. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06760-7.
Sood, Aditya, Xiong, Feng, Chen, Shunda, Wang, Haotian, Selli, Daniele, Zhang, Jinsong, McClellan, Connor J., Sun, Jie, Donadio, Davide, Cui, Yi, Pop, Eric, & Goodson, Kenneth E. An electrochemical thermal transistor. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06760-7.
Sood, Aditya, Xiong, Feng, Chen, Shunda, Wang, Haotian, Selli, Daniele, Zhang, Jinsong, McClellan, Connor J., Sun, Jie, Donadio, Davide, Cui, Yi, Pop, Eric, and Goodson, Kenneth E. Tue . "An electrochemical thermal transistor". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06760-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490643.
@article{osti_1490643,
title = {An electrochemical thermal transistor},
author = {Sood, Aditya and Xiong, Feng and Chen, Shunda and Wang, Haotian and Selli, Daniele and Zhang, Jinsong and McClellan, Connor J. and Sun, Jie and Donadio, Davide and Cui, Yi and Pop, Eric and Goodson, Kenneth E.},
abstractNote = {The ability to actively regulate heat flow at the nanoscale could be a game changer for applications in thermal management and energy harvesting. Such a breakthrough could also enable the control of heat flow using thermal circuits, in a manner analogous to electronic circuits. Here we demonstrate switchable thermal transistors with an order of magnitude thermal on/off ratio, based on reversible electrochemical lithium intercalation in MoS2 thin films. We use spatially-resolved time-domain thermoreflectance to map the lithium ion distribution during device operation, and atomic force microscopy to show that the lithiated state correlates with increased thickness and surface roughness. First principles calculations reveal that the thermal conductance modulation is due to phonon scattering by lithium rattler modes, c-axis strain, and stacking disorder. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for electrochemically-driven nanoscale thermal regulators, and establishes thermal metrology as a useful probe of spatio-temporal intercalant dynamics in nanomaterials.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-06760-7},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 5 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Experimental measurement of a thermal transistor. a Schematic of the electrochemical cell used for operando TDTR experiments. b Cross-sectional view of a device under operation. Li ions enter and leave the MoS2 film through the exposed edges

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.