skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Carrier density and disorder tuned superconductor-metal transition in a two-dimensional electron system

Abstract

Quantum ground states that arise at atomically controlled oxide interfaces provide an opportunity to address key questions in condensed matter physics, including the nature of two-dimensional metallic behaviour often observed adjacent to superconductivity. At the superconducting LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface, a metallic ground state emerges upon the collapse of superconductivity with field-effect gating and is accompanied with a pseudogap. Here we utilize independent control of carrier density and disorder of the interfacial superconductor using dual electrostatic gates, which enables the comprehensive examination of the electronic phase diagram approaching zero temperature. We find that the pseudogap corresponds to precursor pairing, and the onset of long-range phase coherence forms a two-dimensional superconducting dome as a function of the dual-gate voltages. In conclusion, the gate-tuned superconductor–metal transitions are driven by macroscopic phase fluctuations of Josephson coupled superconducting puddles.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490640
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; GBMF4415; DMR-1157490
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Chen, Zhuoyu, Swartz, Adrian G., Yoon, Hyeok, Inoue, Hisashi, Merz, Tyler A., Lu, Di, Xie, Yanwu, Yuan, Hongtao, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Raghu, Srinivas, and Hwang, Harold Y. Carrier density and disorder tuned superconductor-metal transition in a two-dimensional electron system. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06444-2.
Chen, Zhuoyu, Swartz, Adrian G., Yoon, Hyeok, Inoue, Hisashi, Merz, Tyler A., Lu, Di, Xie, Yanwu, Yuan, Hongtao, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Raghu, Srinivas, & Hwang, Harold Y. Carrier density and disorder tuned superconductor-metal transition in a two-dimensional electron system. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06444-2.
Chen, Zhuoyu, Swartz, Adrian G., Yoon, Hyeok, Inoue, Hisashi, Merz, Tyler A., Lu, Di, Xie, Yanwu, Yuan, Hongtao, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Raghu, Srinivas, and Hwang, Harold Y. Mon . "Carrier density and disorder tuned superconductor-metal transition in a two-dimensional electron system". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06444-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490640.
@article{osti_1490640,
title = {Carrier density and disorder tuned superconductor-metal transition in a two-dimensional electron system},
author = {Chen, Zhuoyu and Swartz, Adrian G. and Yoon, Hyeok and Inoue, Hisashi and Merz, Tyler A. and Lu, Di and Xie, Yanwu and Yuan, Hongtao and Hikita, Yasuyuki and Raghu, Srinivas and Hwang, Harold Y.},
abstractNote = {Quantum ground states that arise at atomically controlled oxide interfaces provide an opportunity to address key questions in condensed matter physics, including the nature of two-dimensional metallic behaviour often observed adjacent to superconductivity. At the superconducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, a metallic ground state emerges upon the collapse of superconductivity with field-effect gating and is accompanied with a pseudogap. Here we utilize independent control of carrier density and disorder of the interfacial superconductor using dual electrostatic gates, which enables the comprehensive examination of the electronic phase diagram approaching zero temperature. We find that the pseudogap corresponds to precursor pairing, and the onset of long-range phase coherence forms a two-dimensional superconducting dome as a function of the dual-gate voltages. In conclusion, the gate-tuned superconductor–metal transitions are driven by macroscopic phase fluctuations of Josephson coupled superconducting puddles.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-06444-2},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1 : Operation of the dual-gate device. a The dual-gate device is formed by applying a Au electrode on top of the eight unit-cell epitaxial LaAlO3 layer and a Ag electrode from the back of the SrTiO3 substrate with 0.5 mm thickness. The channel width is 400 μm withmore » Hall bars patterned by predeposited AlOx hard mask. b, c Schematic diagram of the dual-gate operation for top- and back-gates, respectively. The thin lines represent the electron envelope wavefunction perpendicular to the interface at different gate voltages colour-matched to the thick solid lines, which represent the corresponding confinement potential. d, e Top- and back-gate modulation of carrier density (circles) and Hall mobility (squares) at T = 600 mK. The straight solid black lines are linear fits to the circles. The red and blue curves are estimates of mobility based on the measured sheet resistivity and fitted extrapolation of Hall density. The ranges of the solid lines correspond to the experimentally accessible tuning ranges« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Possible metal-insulator transition at B =0 in two dimensions
journal, September 1994

  • Kravchenko, S. V.; Kravchenko, G. V.; Furneaux, J. E.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 50, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.50.8039

Colloquium : Transport in strongly correlated two dimensional electron fluids
journal, May 2010


Onset of superconductivity in ultrathin granular metal films
journal, July 1989


The Elusive Bose Metal
journal, October 2003


Nature of the superconductor–insulator transition in disordered superconductors
journal, October 2007

  • Dubi, Yonatan; Meir, Yigal; Avishai, Yshai
  • Nature, Vol. 449, Issue 7164
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06180

Dominant Mobility Modulation by the Electric Field Effect at the LaAlO 3 / SrTiO 3 Interface
journal, November 2009


Metal-Insulator Transition in Disordered Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
journal, October 2005


Interactions and scaling in a disordered two-dimensional metal
journal, July 1998


Electric field control of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface ground state
journal, December 2008

  • Caviglia, A. D.; Gariglio, S.; Reyren, N.
  • Nature, Vol. 456, Issue 7222
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07576

Observation of Quantum Dissipation in the Vortex State of a Highly Disordered Superconducting Thin Film
journal, February 1996


Orientation-resolved domain mapping in tetragonal SrTiO 3 using polarized Raman spectroscopy
journal, December 2016


Disordered electronic systems
journal, April 1985


Collapse of superconductivity in a hybrid tin–graphene Josephson junction array
journal, March 2014

  • Han, Zheng; Allain, Adrien; Arjmandi-Tash, Hadi
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2929

Theory of quantum metal to superconductor transitions in highly conducting systems
journal, June 2008


A high-mobility electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface
journal, January 2004


Why some interfaces cannot be sharp
journal, January 2006

  • Nakagawa, Naoyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Muller, David A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 3, p. 204-209
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1569

Superconducting Interfaces Between Insulating Oxides
journal, August 2007


Interface superconductor with gap behaviour like a high-temperature superconductor
journal, October 2013

  • Richter, C.; Boschker, H.; Dietsche, W.
  • Nature, Vol. 502, Issue 7472
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12494

Suppression of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in 2D Superconductors by Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling
journal, July 2012


Single- and two-particle energy gaps across the disorder-driven superconductor–insulator transition
journal, July 2011

  • Bouadim, Karim; Loh, Yen Lee; Randeria, Mohit
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2037

Field-induced superconductor-to-insulator transitions in Josephson-junction arrays
journal, November 1992


Dual-Gate Modulation of Carrier Density and Disorder in an Oxide Two-Dimensional Electron System
journal, September 2016


Anomalous conductivity, Hall factor, magnetoresistance, and thermopower of accumulation layer in SrTiO 3
journal, July 2016


Approaching zero-temperature metallic states in mesoscopic superconductor–normal–superconductor arrays
journal, December 2011

  • Eley, Serena; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Goldbart, Paul M.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2154

Direct imaging of the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
journal, September 2011

  • Bert, Julie A.; Kalisky, Beena; Bell, Christopher
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 10, p. 767-771
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2079

Scaling Theory of Localization: Absence of Quantum Diffusion in Two Dimensions
journal, March 1979


Tunable Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction at Oxide Interfaces
journal, March 2010


Superconducting, insulating and anomalous metallic regimes in a gated two-dimensional semiconductor–superconductor array
journal, August 2018


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.