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Title: Tutorial on interpreting x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra: Questions and answers on spectra from the atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 on silicon

Abstract

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has become the most widely used method for chemically analyzing surfaces. In XPS, photoelectrons are generated by irradiating a surface with X-rays. As the importance and popularity of XPS have grown, it has drawn users without significant XPS experience, and incorrect and incomplete interpretations of XPS spectra regularly appear in the literature. This tutorial is designed as a tool to guide less experienced users in analyzing XPS survey spectra. Here, we examine a series of XPS survey spectra collected during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 from trimethylaluminum and water precursors. Prior to this, brief explanations of XPS and atomic layer deposition (ALD) are presented. This tutorial is structured as a series of questions and answers that the interested reader may choose to engage in. The XPS spectra are scrutinized to extract information about the elements present in the film, the presence of contamination, and the nature of the film growth process. The questions and answers in this tutorial address important fundamental issues common to the interpretation of many XPS survey spectra in the context of ALD.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602
  2. The Kurt J. Lesker Company, Jefferson Hills, Pennsylvania 15025
  3. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1489288
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-138872
Journal ID: ISSN 2166-2746
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 36; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-2746
Publisher:
American Vacuum Society/AIP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
XPS spectrum, Tutorial, Atomic layer deposition

Citation Formats

Shah, Dhruv, Patel, Dhananjay I., Roychowdhury, Tuhin, Rayner, G. Bruce, O’Toole, Noel, Baer, Donald R., and Linford, Matthew R. Tutorial on interpreting x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra: Questions and answers on spectra from the atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 on silicon. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1116/1.5043297.
Shah, Dhruv, Patel, Dhananjay I., Roychowdhury, Tuhin, Rayner, G. Bruce, O’Toole, Noel, Baer, Donald R., & Linford, Matthew R. Tutorial on interpreting x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra: Questions and answers on spectra from the atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 on silicon. United States. doi:10.1116/1.5043297.
Shah, Dhruv, Patel, Dhananjay I., Roychowdhury, Tuhin, Rayner, G. Bruce, O’Toole, Noel, Baer, Donald R., and Linford, Matthew R. Thu . "Tutorial on interpreting x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra: Questions and answers on spectra from the atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 on silicon". United States. doi:10.1116/1.5043297.
@article{osti_1489288,
title = {Tutorial on interpreting x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra: Questions and answers on spectra from the atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 on silicon},
author = {Shah, Dhruv and Patel, Dhananjay I. and Roychowdhury, Tuhin and Rayner, G. Bruce and O’Toole, Noel and Baer, Donald R. and Linford, Matthew R.},
abstractNote = {X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has become the most widely used method for chemically analyzing surfaces. In XPS, photoelectrons are generated by irradiating a surface with X-rays. As the importance and popularity of XPS have grown, it has drawn users without significant XPS experience, and incorrect and incomplete interpretations of XPS spectra regularly appear in the literature. This tutorial is designed as a tool to guide less experienced users in analyzing XPS survey spectra. Here, we examine a series of XPS survey spectra collected during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 from trimethylaluminum and water precursors. Prior to this, brief explanations of XPS and atomic layer deposition (ALD) are presented. This tutorial is structured as a series of questions and answers that the interested reader may choose to engage in. The XPS spectra are scrutinized to extract information about the elements present in the film, the presence of contamination, and the nature of the film growth process. The questions and answers in this tutorial address important fundamental issues common to the interpretation of many XPS survey spectra in the context of ALD.},
doi = {10.1116/1.5043297},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics},
issn = {2166-2746},
number = 6,
volume = 36,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}