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Title: Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption

Abstract

Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino–nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators1,2. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino–nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3–980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model3, consistent with the expectations for charged- and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the cross-section with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions4 or the production of leptoquarks5. This cross-section measurement can bemore » used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory-National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1489277
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 551; Journal Issue: 596; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Hill, G. C., Kyriacou, A., Robertson, S., Wallace, A., Whelan, B. J., Ackermann, M., Bernardini, E., Blot, S., Bradascio, F., Bretz, H. -P., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Franckowiak, A., Jacobi, E., Karg, T., Kintscher, T., Kunwar, S., Nahnhauer, R., Satalecka, K., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stasik, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Terliuk, A., Usner, M., van Santen, J., Adams, J., Bagherpour, H., Aguilar, J. A., Ansseau, I., Heereman, D., Meagher, K., Meures, T., O’Murchadha, A., Pinat, E., Raab, C., Ahlers, M., Koskinen, D. J., Larson, M. J., Medici, M., Rameez, M., Ahrens, M., Bohm, C., Dumm, J. P., Finley, C., Flis, S., Hultqvist, K., Walck, C., Zoll, M., Al Samarai, I., Bron, S., Carver, T., Christov, A., Montaruli, T., Altmann, D., Anton, G., Glüsenkamp, T., Katz, U., Kittler, T., Tselengidou, M., Andeen, K., Plum, M., Anderson, T., DeLaunay, J. J., Dunkman, M., Eller, P., Huang, F., Keivani, A., Lanfranchi, J. L., Pankova, D. V., Tešic´, G., Turley, C. F., Weiss, M. J., Argüelles, C., Axani, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Moulai, M., Auffenberg, J., Brenzke, M., Glauch, T., Haack, C., Kalaczynski, P., Koschinsky, J. P., Leuermann, M., Rädel, L., Reimann, R., Rongen, M., Sälzer, T., Schoenen, S., Schumacher, L., Stettner, J., Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Wallraff, M., Waza, A., Wiebusch, C. H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Giang, W., Grant, D., Kopper, C., Moore, R. W., Nowicki, S. C., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sarkar, S., Wandler, F. D., Weaver, C., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Yanez, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Yodh, G., Baum, V., Böser, S., di Lorenzo, V., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Köpke, L., Krückl, G., Momenté, G., Peiffer, P., Sandroos, J., Steuer, A., Wiebe, K., Bay, R., Filimonov, K., Price, P. B., Woschnagg, K., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Bos, F., Eichmann, B., Kroll, M., Schöneberg, S., Tenholt, F., Becker, K. -H., Bindig, D., Helbing, K., Hickford, S., Hoffmann, R., Lauber, F., Naumann, U., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Soldin, D., BenZvi, S., Cross, R., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Cheung, E., Felde, J., Friedman, E., Hellauer, R., Hoffman, K. D., Maunu, R., Olivas, A., Schmidt, T., Song, M., Sullivan, G. W., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Klein, S. R., Miarecki, S., Palczewski, T., Tatar, J., Börner, M., Fuchs, T., Hünnefeld, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Pieloth, D., Rhode, W., Ruhe, T., Sandrock, A., Schlunder, P., Soedingrekso, J., Werthebach, J., Bose, D., Dujmovic, H., In, S., Jeong, M., Kang, W., Kim, J., Rott, C., Botner, O., Burgman, A., Hallgren, A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Unger, E., Bourbeau, J., Braun, J., Casey, J., Chirkin, D., Day, M., Desiati, P., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Fahey, S., Ghorbani, K., Griffith, Z., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Jero, K., Karle, A., Kauer, M., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Liu, Q. R., Luszczak, W., Mancina, S., McNally, F., Merino, G., Schneider, A., Tobin, M. N., Tosi, D., Ty, B., Vandenbroucke, J., Wandkowsky, N., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Wille, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Xu, D. L., Yuan, T., Brayeur, L., Casier, M., De Clercq, C., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., Kunnen, J., Lünemann, J., Maggi, G., Toscano, S., van Eijndhoven, N., Clark, K., Classen, L., Kappes, A., Coenders, S., Huber, M., Krings, K., Rea, I. C., Resconi, E., Turcati, A., Cowen, D. F., de André, J. P. A. M., DeYoung, T., Hignight, J., Lennarz, D., Mahn, K. B. M., Micallef, J., Neer, G., Rysewyk, D., Dembinski, H., Evenson, P. A., Gaisser, T. K., Gonzalez, J. G., Koirala, R., Pandya, H., Seckel, D., Stanev, T., Tilav, S., De Ridder, S., Labare, M., Ryckbosch, D., Van Driessche, W., Vanheule, S., Vraeghe, M., de With, M., Hebecker, D., Kolanoski, H., Fazely, A. R., Ter-Antonyan, S., Xu, X. W., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Goldschmidt, A., Nygren, D. R., Przybylski, G. T., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Ishihara, A., Kim, M., Kuwabara, T., Lu, L., Mase, K., Relich, M., Stößl, A., Yoshida, S., Japaridze, G. S., Jones, B. J. P., Kiryluk, J., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Niederhausen, H., Xu, Y., Kohnen, G., Kopper, S., Nakarmi, P., Pepper, J. A., Toale, P. A., Williams, D. R., Kowalski, M., Kurahashi, N., Relethford, B., Richman, M., Wills, L., Madsen, J., Seunarine, S., Spiczak, G. M., Maruyama, R., Rawlins, K., Sarkar, S., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., and Tung, C. F. Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nature24459.
Aartsen, M. G., Hill, G. C., Kyriacou, A., Robertson, S., Wallace, A., Whelan, B. J., Ackermann, M., Bernardini, E., Blot, S., Bradascio, F., Bretz, H. -P., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Franckowiak, A., Jacobi, E., Karg, T., Kintscher, T., Kunwar, S., Nahnhauer, R., Satalecka, K., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stasik, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Terliuk, A., Usner, M., van Santen, J., Adams, J., Bagherpour, H., Aguilar, J. A., Ansseau, I., Heereman, D., Meagher, K., Meures, T., O’Murchadha, A., Pinat, E., Raab, C., Ahlers, M., Koskinen, D. J., Larson, M. J., Medici, M., Rameez, M., Ahrens, M., Bohm, C., Dumm, J. P., Finley, C., Flis, S., Hultqvist, K., Walck, C., Zoll, M., Al Samarai, I., Bron, S., Carver, T., Christov, A., Montaruli, T., Altmann, D., Anton, G., Glüsenkamp, T., Katz, U., Kittler, T., Tselengidou, M., Andeen, K., Plum, M., Anderson, T., DeLaunay, J. J., Dunkman, M., Eller, P., Huang, F., Keivani, A., Lanfranchi, J. L., Pankova, D. V., Tešic´, G., Turley, C. F., Weiss, M. J., Argüelles, C., Axani, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Moulai, M., Auffenberg, J., Brenzke, M., Glauch, T., Haack, C., Kalaczynski, P., Koschinsky, J. P., Leuermann, M., Rädel, L., Reimann, R., Rongen, M., Sälzer, T., Schoenen, S., Schumacher, L., Stettner, J., Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Wallraff, M., Waza, A., Wiebusch, C. H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Giang, W., Grant, D., Kopper, C., Moore, R. W., Nowicki, S. C., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sarkar, S., Wandler, F. D., Weaver, C., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Yanez, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Yodh, G., Baum, V., Böser, S., di Lorenzo, V., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Köpke, L., Krückl, G., Momenté, G., Peiffer, P., Sandroos, J., Steuer, A., Wiebe, K., Bay, R., Filimonov, K., Price, P. B., Woschnagg, K., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Bos, F., Eichmann, B., Kroll, M., Schöneberg, S., Tenholt, F., Becker, K. -H., Bindig, D., Helbing, K., Hickford, S., Hoffmann, R., Lauber, F., Naumann, U., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Soldin, D., BenZvi, S., Cross, R., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Cheung, E., Felde, J., Friedman, E., Hellauer, R., Hoffman, K. D., Maunu, R., Olivas, A., Schmidt, T., Song, M., Sullivan, G. W., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Klein, S. R., Miarecki, S., Palczewski, T., Tatar, J., Börner, M., Fuchs, T., Hünnefeld, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Pieloth, D., Rhode, W., Ruhe, T., Sandrock, A., Schlunder, P., Soedingrekso, J., Werthebach, J., Bose, D., Dujmovic, H., In, S., Jeong, M., Kang, W., Kim, J., Rott, C., Botner, O., Burgman, A., Hallgren, A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Unger, E., Bourbeau, J., Braun, J., Casey, J., Chirkin, D., Day, M., Desiati, P., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Fahey, S., Ghorbani, K., Griffith, Z., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Jero, K., Karle, A., Kauer, M., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Liu, Q. R., Luszczak, W., Mancina, S., McNally, F., Merino, G., Schneider, A., Tobin, M. N., Tosi, D., Ty, B., Vandenbroucke, J., Wandkowsky, N., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Wille, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Xu, D. L., Yuan, T., Brayeur, L., Casier, M., De Clercq, C., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., Kunnen, J., Lünemann, J., Maggi, G., Toscano, S., van Eijndhoven, N., Clark, K., Classen, L., Kappes, A., Coenders, S., Huber, M., Krings, K., Rea, I. C., Resconi, E., Turcati, A., Cowen, D. F., de André, J. P. A. M., DeYoung, T., Hignight, J., Lennarz, D., Mahn, K. B. M., Micallef, J., Neer, G., Rysewyk, D., Dembinski, H., Evenson, P. A., Gaisser, T. K., Gonzalez, J. G., Koirala, R., Pandya, H., Seckel, D., Stanev, T., Tilav, S., De Ridder, S., Labare, M., Ryckbosch, D., Van Driessche, W., Vanheule, S., Vraeghe, M., de With, M., Hebecker, D., Kolanoski, H., Fazely, A. R., Ter-Antonyan, S., Xu, X. W., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Goldschmidt, A., Nygren, D. R., Przybylski, G. T., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Ishihara, A., Kim, M., Kuwabara, T., Lu, L., Mase, K., Relich, M., Stößl, A., Yoshida, S., Japaridze, G. S., Jones, B. J. P., Kiryluk, J., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Niederhausen, H., Xu, Y., Kohnen, G., Kopper, S., Nakarmi, P., Pepper, J. A., Toale, P. A., Williams, D. R., Kowalski, M., Kurahashi, N., Relethford, B., Richman, M., Wills, L., Madsen, J., Seunarine, S., Spiczak, G. M., Maruyama, R., Rawlins, K., Sarkar, S., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., & Tung, C. F. Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption. United States. doi:10.1038/nature24459.
Aartsen, M. G., Hill, G. C., Kyriacou, A., Robertson, S., Wallace, A., Whelan, B. J., Ackermann, M., Bernardini, E., Blot, S., Bradascio, F., Bretz, H. -P., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Franckowiak, A., Jacobi, E., Karg, T., Kintscher, T., Kunwar, S., Nahnhauer, R., Satalecka, K., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stasik, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Terliuk, A., Usner, M., van Santen, J., Adams, J., Bagherpour, H., Aguilar, J. A., Ansseau, I., Heereman, D., Meagher, K., Meures, T., O’Murchadha, A., Pinat, E., Raab, C., Ahlers, M., Koskinen, D. J., Larson, M. J., Medici, M., Rameez, M., Ahrens, M., Bohm, C., Dumm, J. P., Finley, C., Flis, S., Hultqvist, K., Walck, C., Zoll, M., Al Samarai, I., Bron, S., Carver, T., Christov, A., Montaruli, T., Altmann, D., Anton, G., Glüsenkamp, T., Katz, U., Kittler, T., Tselengidou, M., Andeen, K., Plum, M., Anderson, T., DeLaunay, J. J., Dunkman, M., Eller, P., Huang, F., Keivani, A., Lanfranchi, J. L., Pankova, D. V., Tešic´, G., Turley, C. F., Weiss, M. J., Argüelles, C., Axani, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Moulai, M., Auffenberg, J., Brenzke, M., Glauch, T., Haack, C., Kalaczynski, P., Koschinsky, J. P., Leuermann, M., Rädel, L., Reimann, R., Rongen, M., Sälzer, T., Schoenen, S., Schumacher, L., Stettner, J., Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Wallraff, M., Waza, A., Wiebusch, C. H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Giang, W., Grant, D., Kopper, C., Moore, R. W., Nowicki, S. C., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sarkar, S., Wandler, F. D., Weaver, C., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Yanez, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Yodh, G., Baum, V., Böser, S., di Lorenzo, V., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Köpke, L., Krückl, G., Momenté, G., Peiffer, P., Sandroos, J., Steuer, A., Wiebe, K., Bay, R., Filimonov, K., Price, P. B., Woschnagg, K., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Bos, F., Eichmann, B., Kroll, M., Schöneberg, S., Tenholt, F., Becker, K. -H., Bindig, D., Helbing, K., Hickford, S., Hoffmann, R., Lauber, F., Naumann, U., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Soldin, D., BenZvi, S., Cross, R., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Cheung, E., Felde, J., Friedman, E., Hellauer, R., Hoffman, K. D., Maunu, R., Olivas, A., Schmidt, T., Song, M., Sullivan, G. W., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Klein, S. R., Miarecki, S., Palczewski, T., Tatar, J., Börner, M., Fuchs, T., Hünnefeld, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Pieloth, D., Rhode, W., Ruhe, T., Sandrock, A., Schlunder, P., Soedingrekso, J., Werthebach, J., Bose, D., Dujmovic, H., In, S., Jeong, M., Kang, W., Kim, J., Rott, C., Botner, O., Burgman, A., Hallgren, A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Unger, E., Bourbeau, J., Braun, J., Casey, J., Chirkin, D., Day, M., Desiati, P., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Fahey, S., Ghorbani, K., Griffith, Z., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Jero, K., Karle, A., Kauer, M., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Liu, Q. R., Luszczak, W., Mancina, S., McNally, F., Merino, G., Schneider, A., Tobin, M. N., Tosi, D., Ty, B., Vandenbroucke, J., Wandkowsky, N., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Wille, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Xu, D. L., Yuan, T., Brayeur, L., Casier, M., De Clercq, C., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., Kunnen, J., Lünemann, J., Maggi, G., Toscano, S., van Eijndhoven, N., Clark, K., Classen, L., Kappes, A., Coenders, S., Huber, M., Krings, K., Rea, I. C., Resconi, E., Turcati, A., Cowen, D. F., de André, J. P. A. M., DeYoung, T., Hignight, J., Lennarz, D., Mahn, K. B. M., Micallef, J., Neer, G., Rysewyk, D., Dembinski, H., Evenson, P. A., Gaisser, T. K., Gonzalez, J. G., Koirala, R., Pandya, H., Seckel, D., Stanev, T., Tilav, S., De Ridder, S., Labare, M., Ryckbosch, D., Van Driessche, W., Vanheule, S., Vraeghe, M., de With, M., Hebecker, D., Kolanoski, H., Fazely, A. R., Ter-Antonyan, S., Xu, X. W., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Goldschmidt, A., Nygren, D. R., Przybylski, G. T., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Ishihara, A., Kim, M., Kuwabara, T., Lu, L., Mase, K., Relich, M., Stößl, A., Yoshida, S., Japaridze, G. S., Jones, B. J. P., Kiryluk, J., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Niederhausen, H., Xu, Y., Kohnen, G., Kopper, S., Nakarmi, P., Pepper, J. A., Toale, P. A., Williams, D. R., Kowalski, M., Kurahashi, N., Relethford, B., Richman, M., Wills, L., Madsen, J., Seunarine, S., Spiczak, G. M., Maruyama, R., Rawlins, K., Sarkar, S., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., and Tung, C. F. Wed . "Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption". United States. doi:10.1038/nature24459.
@article{osti_1489277,
title = {Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Hill, G. C. and Kyriacou, A. and Robertson, S. and Wallace, A. and Whelan, B. J. and Ackermann, M. and Bernardini, E. and Blot, S. and Bradascio, F. and Bretz, H. -P. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Franckowiak, A. and Jacobi, E. and Karg, T. and Kintscher, T. and Kunwar, S. and Nahnhauer, R. and Satalecka, K. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stasik, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Terliuk, A. and Usner, M. and van Santen, J. and Adams, J. and Bagherpour, H. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ansseau, I. and Heereman, D. and Meagher, K. and Meures, T. and O’Murchadha, A. and Pinat, E. and Raab, C. and Ahlers, M. and Koskinen, D. J. and Larson, M. J. and Medici, M. and Rameez, M. and Ahrens, M. and Bohm, C. and Dumm, J. P. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Hultqvist, K. and Walck, C. and Zoll, M. and Al Samarai, I. and Bron, S. and Carver, T. and Christov, A. and Montaruli, T. and Altmann, D. and Anton, G. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Katz, U. and Kittler, T. and Tselengidou, M. and Andeen, K. and Plum, M. and Anderson, T. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dunkman, M. and Eller, P. and Huang, F. and Keivani, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Pankova, D. V. and Tešic´, G. and Turley, C. F. and Weiss, M. J. and Argüelles, C. and Axani, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Moulai, M. and Auffenberg, J. and Brenzke, M. and Glauch, T. and Haack, C. and Kalaczynski, P. and Koschinsky, J. P. and Leuermann, M. and Rädel, L. and Reimann, R. and Rongen, M. and Sälzer, T. and Schoenen, S. and Schumacher, L. and Stettner, J. and Vehring, M. and Vogel, E. and Wallraff, M. and Waza, A. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Bai, X. and Barron, J. P. and Giang, W. and Grant, D. and Kopper, C. and Moore, R. W. and Nowicki, S. C. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sarkar, S. and Wandler, F. D. and Weaver, C. and Wood, T. R. and Woolsey, E. and Yanez, J. P. and Barwick, S. W. and Yodh, G. and Baum, V. and Böser, S. and di Lorenzo, V. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Köpke, L. and Krückl, G. and Momenté, G. and Peiffer, P. and Sandroos, J. and Steuer, A. and Wiebe, K. and Bay, R. and Filimonov, K. and Price, P. B. and Woschnagg, K. and Beatty, J. J. and Tjus, J. Becker and Bos, F. and Eichmann, B. and Kroll, M. and Schöneberg, S. and Tenholt, F. and Becker, K. -H. and Bindig, D. and Helbing, K. and Hickford, S. and Hoffmann, R. and Lauber, F. and Naumann, U. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Soldin, D. and BenZvi, S. and Cross, R. and Berley, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Cheung, E. and Felde, J. and Friedman, E. and Hellauer, R. and Hoffman, K. D. and Maunu, R. and Olivas, A. and Schmidt, T. and Song, M. and Sullivan, G. W. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Klein, S. 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abstractNote = {Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino–nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators1,2. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino–nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3–980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model3, consistent with the expectations for charged- and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the cross-section with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions4 or the production of leptoquarks5. This cross-section measurement can be used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.},
doi = {10.1038/nature24459},
journal = {Nature (London)},
issn = {0028-0836},
number = 596,
volume = 551,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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