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Title: Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays— Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution: Final Report

Abstract

This report describes the seismic and heat-pulse monitoring equipment, surveys, results and accomplishments of the fiber optic (FO) project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Agreement Number DE-FE0012700. The formal title of the project is “Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution.” The project focuses on the field acquisition of FO data using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) arrays for subsurface imaging of geologic structure and to track the CO2 migration in the injection interval using time-lapse techniques. A second component of the project uses a novel heat-pulse monitoring method that relies on Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to evaluate near-field leakage of CO2 or brine in and around the wellbore. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration (SECARB) partnership hosted the project at the Anthropogenic Test site near Citronelle, Alabama after the original site host, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), experienced significant delays in permitting its CO2 injection well at the Wellington Oil Field site in Kansas. The KGS project was later terminated in 2017 before an injection permit issued. A second field trial was planned for the Livingston Oil Field, located in Louisiana, but the site host ranmore » into financial troubles and the project was terminated in 2015. A replacement field-site host was not found for the Livingston field trial. Both the Wellington, Kansas and Livingston, Louisiana projects were funded by DOE. A novel sensor platform referred to as the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) system deployed at the Citronelle field site was utilized by the FO project. Two different seismic sensor technologies were incorporated in the Citronelle MBM system design including: (1) a semi-permanent, tubing-deployed, 18-level geophone array with custom hydraulic clamps; and (2) two, single mode optical fibers for Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS). Incorporation of the 18-level geophone array in the MBM system provided an ideal opportunity to compare the DAS response to conventional geophones. A heat-pulse monitoring system consisting of two, multi-mode optical fibers for Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) and copper heater element were also incorporated into the MBM package. This report provides an overview of the design of the MBM, DAS, and DTS equipment and the surveys performed during the study. The heat-pulse monitoring technique was used to diagnose a completion problem with observation well D-9-8 #2 where the MBM system was installed in 2012, thus successfully demonstrating its application for leak detection. In 2015, CO2 unexpectedly arrived at the observation well approximately one year after CO2 injection and heat-pulse monitoring ended. It was determined at this time that saltwater intrusion had likely penetrated the stainless-steel capillary tube containing the fibers and copper heater elements, thus preventing the heater from being used. DTS measurements indicated that the fiber had also degraded probably due to hydrogen darkening. It is recommended that the capillary tube be constructed of a more corrosive resistant material (e.g., Inconel) in the future should it be deployed in similar harsh downhole environments. Geophysical imaging of the subsurface and monitoring of the CO2 were successful using DAS in the vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey configuration. A high resolution VSP image of the subsurface was obtained in 2014 using DAS, which exceeded our expectations in comparison to a lower resolution image obtained by SECARB in 2012 using an 80-level geophone array. A time-lapse image of the redistribution of CO2 after injection ended in September 2014 was obtained using two DAS VSP surveys from June 2014 and December 2015, thus successfully demonstrating its application. DAS data were also acquired during a crosswell seismic survey conducted in 2014. Unfortunately, the DAS technique was not success in the crosswell survey configuration because the noise level was too high, increasing by a factor of ten, over the high frequency output (100-1,200) of the piezoelectric source.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ;  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Silixa LLC
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1488949
Report Number(s):
DOE-EPRI-0012700-1
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0012700
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Distributed acoustic sensing; distributed temperature sensing; fiber optics; DAS; DTS; heat pulse monitoring; CO2 storage, CO2 monitoring

Citation Formats

Trautz, Robert, Daley, Thomas, Freifeld, Barry, Cook, Paul, Robertson, Michele, Coleman, Thomas, Greer, Joseph, and Miller, Douglas. Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays— Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution: Final Report. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Trautz, Robert, Daley, Thomas, Freifeld, Barry, Cook, Paul, Robertson, Michele, Coleman, Thomas, Greer, Joseph, & Miller, Douglas. Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays— Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution: Final Report. United States.
Trautz, Robert, Daley, Thomas, Freifeld, Barry, Cook, Paul, Robertson, Michele, Coleman, Thomas, Greer, Joseph, and Miller, Douglas. Thu . "Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays— Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution: Final Report". United States.
@article{osti_1488949,
title = {Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays— Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution: Final Report},
author = {Trautz, Robert and Daley, Thomas and Freifeld, Barry and Cook, Paul and Robertson, Michele and Coleman, Thomas and Greer, Joseph and Miller, Douglas},
abstractNote = {This report describes the seismic and heat-pulse monitoring equipment, surveys, results and accomplishments of the fiber optic (FO) project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Agreement Number DE-FE0012700. The formal title of the project is “Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of CO2 Flow, Leakage and Subsurface Distribution.” The project focuses on the field acquisition of FO data using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) arrays for subsurface imaging of geologic structure and to track the CO2 migration in the injection interval using time-lapse techniques. A second component of the project uses a novel heat-pulse monitoring method that relies on Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to evaluate near-field leakage of CO2 or brine in and around the wellbore. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration (SECARB) partnership hosted the project at the Anthropogenic Test site near Citronelle, Alabama after the original site host, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), experienced significant delays in permitting its CO2 injection well at the Wellington Oil Field site in Kansas. The KGS project was later terminated in 2017 before an injection permit issued. A second field trial was planned for the Livingston Oil Field, located in Louisiana, but the site host ran into financial troubles and the project was terminated in 2015. A replacement field-site host was not found for the Livingston field trial. Both the Wellington, Kansas and Livingston, Louisiana projects were funded by DOE. A novel sensor platform referred to as the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) system deployed at the Citronelle field site was utilized by the FO project. Two different seismic sensor technologies were incorporated in the Citronelle MBM system design including: (1) a semi-permanent, tubing-deployed, 18-level geophone array with custom hydraulic clamps; and (2) two, single mode optical fibers for Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS). Incorporation of the 18-level geophone array in the MBM system provided an ideal opportunity to compare the DAS response to conventional geophones. A heat-pulse monitoring system consisting of two, multi-mode optical fibers for Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) and copper heater element were also incorporated into the MBM package. This report provides an overview of the design of the MBM, DAS, and DTS equipment and the surveys performed during the study. The heat-pulse monitoring technique was used to diagnose a completion problem with observation well D-9-8 #2 where the MBM system was installed in 2012, thus successfully demonstrating its application for leak detection. In 2015, CO2 unexpectedly arrived at the observation well approximately one year after CO2 injection and heat-pulse monitoring ended. It was determined at this time that saltwater intrusion had likely penetrated the stainless-steel capillary tube containing the fibers and copper heater elements, thus preventing the heater from being used. DTS measurements indicated that the fiber had also degraded probably due to hydrogen darkening. It is recommended that the capillary tube be constructed of a more corrosive resistant material (e.g., Inconel) in the future should it be deployed in similar harsh downhole environments. Geophysical imaging of the subsurface and monitoring of the CO2 were successful using DAS in the vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey configuration. A high resolution VSP image of the subsurface was obtained in 2014 using DAS, which exceeded our expectations in comparison to a lower resolution image obtained by SECARB in 2012 using an 80-level geophone array. A time-lapse image of the redistribution of CO2 after injection ended in September 2014 was obtained using two DAS VSP surveys from June 2014 and December 2015, thus successfully demonstrating its application. DAS data were also acquired during a crosswell seismic survey conducted in 2014. Unfortunately, the DAS technique was not success in the crosswell survey configuration because the noise level was too high, increasing by a factor of ten, over the high frequency output (100-1,200) of the piezoelectric source.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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