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Title: Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin

Abstract

Salt containing aerosols play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation, hence understanding and observationally constraining their sources are vital. In the Amazon basin, particles containing mixed sodium salts are routinely attributed to marine aerosols transported from the Atlantic Ocean. Here, using detailed chemical imaging analysis, we show that fungal spores emitted by the forest biosphere contribute to at least 30% (by number) of sodium salt particles observed in the central Amazon basin. Hydration experiments, using environmental microreactors complemented with micro32 spectroscopy analysis, we show that sodium-containing fungal spores have higher hygroscopic growth than sodium-free spores and their sodium content determines their growth factors. Modeling results suggest that fungal spores account for ~62% of the total sodium mass during the wet season and that their fractional contribution increases during nighttime. In sharp contrast with the assumption that sodium-containing aerosols arise solely from marine sources, our results suggest that locally-emitted fungal spores containing sodium contribute substantially to the number and mass of coarse particles containing Na and Cl (similar to sea salt). Furthermore, their role in cloud formation and contribution to salt cycles and the terrestrial ecosystem in the Amazon basin warrant further consideration.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Wurzburg, Wurzburg (Germany)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)
  6. Univ. Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)
  7. Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Univ. Lille, Lille (France)
  8. Federal Univ. of Para, Belem (Brazil)
  9. Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
  10. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  11. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1483630
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-130861
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

China, Swarup, Burrows, Susannah M., Wang, Bingbing, Harder, Tristan H., Weis, Johannes, Tanarhte, Meryem, Rizzo, Luciana V., Brito, Joel, Cirino, Glauber G., Ma, Po -Lun, Cliff, John, Artaxo, Paulo, Gilles, Mary K., and Laskin, Alexander. Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07066-4.
China, Swarup, Burrows, Susannah M., Wang, Bingbing, Harder, Tristan H., Weis, Johannes, Tanarhte, Meryem, Rizzo, Luciana V., Brito, Joel, Cirino, Glauber G., Ma, Po -Lun, Cliff, John, Artaxo, Paulo, Gilles, Mary K., & Laskin, Alexander. Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07066-4.
China, Swarup, Burrows, Susannah M., Wang, Bingbing, Harder, Tristan H., Weis, Johannes, Tanarhte, Meryem, Rizzo, Luciana V., Brito, Joel, Cirino, Glauber G., Ma, Po -Lun, Cliff, John, Artaxo, Paulo, Gilles, Mary K., and Laskin, Alexander. Mon . "Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07066-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1483630.
@article{osti_1483630,
title = {Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin},
author = {China, Swarup and Burrows, Susannah M. and Wang, Bingbing and Harder, Tristan H. and Weis, Johannes and Tanarhte, Meryem and Rizzo, Luciana V. and Brito, Joel and Cirino, Glauber G. and Ma, Po -Lun and Cliff, John and Artaxo, Paulo and Gilles, Mary K. and Laskin, Alexander},
abstractNote = {Salt containing aerosols play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation, hence understanding and observationally constraining their sources are vital. In the Amazon basin, particles containing mixed sodium salts are routinely attributed to marine aerosols transported from the Atlantic Ocean. Here, using detailed chemical imaging analysis, we show that fungal spores emitted by the forest biosphere contribute to at least 30% (by number) of sodium salt particles observed in the central Amazon basin. Hydration experiments, using environmental microreactors complemented with micro32 spectroscopy analysis, we show that sodium-containing fungal spores have higher hygroscopic growth than sodium-free spores and their sodium content determines their growth factors. Modeling results suggest that fungal spores account for ~62% of the total sodium mass during the wet season and that their fractional contribution increases during nighttime. In sharp contrast with the assumption that sodium-containing aerosols arise solely from marine sources, our results suggest that locally-emitted fungal spores containing sodium contribute substantially to the number and mass of coarse particles containing Na and Cl (similar to sea salt). Furthermore, their role in cloud formation and contribution to salt cycles and the terrestrial ecosystem in the Amazon basin warrant further consideration.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-07066-4},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Nov 19 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Mon Nov 19 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

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