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Title: Relativistic and resonant effects in the ionization of heavy atoms by ultra-intense hard X-rays

Abstract

An accurate description of the interaction of intense hard X-ray pulses with heavy atoms, which is crucial for many applications of free-electron lasers, represents a hitherto unresolved challenge for theory because of the enormous number of electronic configurations and relativistic effects, which need to be taken into account. Here we report results on multiple ionization of xenon atoms by ultra-intense (about 10 19 W/cm 2) femtosecond X-ray pulses at photon energies from 5.5 to 8.3 keV and present a theoretical model capable of reproducing the experimental data in the entire energy range. Our analysis shows that the interplay of resonant and relativistic effects results in strongly structured charge state distributions, which reflect resonant positions of relativistically shifted electronic levels of highly charged ions created during the X-ray pulse. In conclusion, the theoretical approach described here provides a basis for accurate modeling of radiation damage in hard X-ray imaging experiments on targets with high-Z constituents.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [2];  [2];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9];  [10];  [10];  [11];  [12] more »;  [13];  [14];  [14];  [2]; ORCiD logo [15];  [16]; ORCiD logo [2];  [17] « less
  1. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany)
  4. Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany)
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); California Lutheran Univ., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  9. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Philipps-Univ. Marburg, Marburg (Germany)
  10. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  11. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  12. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  13. Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
  14. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  15. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
  16. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)
  17. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1482558
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1488387; OSTI ID: 1490642
Report Number(s):
BNL-209457-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-06CH11357; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Rudek, Benedikt, Toyota, Koudai, Foucar, Lutz, Erk, Benjamin, Boll, Rebecca, Bomme, Cédric, Correa, Jonathan, Carron, Sebastian, Boutet, Sébastien, Williams, Garth J., Ferguson, Ken R., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Koglin, Jason E., Gorkhover, Tais, Bucher, Maximilian, Lehmann, Carl Stefan, Krässig, Bertold, Southworth, Stephen H., Young, Linda, Bostedt, Christoph, Ueda, Kiyoshi, Marchenko, Tatiana, Simon, Marc, Jurek, Zoltan, Santra, Robin, Rudenko, Artem, Son, Sang-Kil, and Rolles, Daniel. Relativistic and resonant effects in the ionization of heavy atoms by ultra-intense hard X-rays. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06745-6.
Rudek, Benedikt, Toyota, Koudai, Foucar, Lutz, Erk, Benjamin, Boll, Rebecca, Bomme, Cédric, Correa, Jonathan, Carron, Sebastian, Boutet, Sébastien, Williams, Garth J., Ferguson, Ken R., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Koglin, Jason E., Gorkhover, Tais, Bucher, Maximilian, Lehmann, Carl Stefan, Krässig, Bertold, Southworth, Stephen H., Young, Linda, Bostedt, Christoph, Ueda, Kiyoshi, Marchenko, Tatiana, Simon, Marc, Jurek, Zoltan, Santra, Robin, Rudenko, Artem, Son, Sang-Kil, & Rolles, Daniel. Relativistic and resonant effects in the ionization of heavy atoms by ultra-intense hard X-rays. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06745-6.
Rudek, Benedikt, Toyota, Koudai, Foucar, Lutz, Erk, Benjamin, Boll, Rebecca, Bomme, Cédric, Correa, Jonathan, Carron, Sebastian, Boutet, Sébastien, Williams, Garth J., Ferguson, Ken R., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Koglin, Jason E., Gorkhover, Tais, Bucher, Maximilian, Lehmann, Carl Stefan, Krässig, Bertold, Southworth, Stephen H., Young, Linda, Bostedt, Christoph, Ueda, Kiyoshi, Marchenko, Tatiana, Simon, Marc, Jurek, Zoltan, Santra, Robin, Rudenko, Artem, Son, Sang-Kil, and Rolles, Daniel. Wed . "Relativistic and resonant effects in the ionization of heavy atoms by ultra-intense hard X-rays". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06745-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1482558.
@article{osti_1482558,
title = {Relativistic and resonant effects in the ionization of heavy atoms by ultra-intense hard X-rays},
author = {Rudek, Benedikt and Toyota, Koudai and Foucar, Lutz and Erk, Benjamin and Boll, Rebecca and Bomme, Cédric and Correa, Jonathan and Carron, Sebastian and Boutet, Sébastien and Williams, Garth J. and Ferguson, Ken R. and Alonso-Mori, Roberto and Koglin, Jason E. and Gorkhover, Tais and Bucher, Maximilian and Lehmann, Carl Stefan and Krässig, Bertold and Southworth, Stephen H. and Young, Linda and Bostedt, Christoph and Ueda, Kiyoshi and Marchenko, Tatiana and Simon, Marc and Jurek, Zoltan and Santra, Robin and Rudenko, Artem and Son, Sang-Kil and Rolles, Daniel},
abstractNote = {An accurate description of the interaction of intense hard X-ray pulses with heavy atoms, which is crucial for many applications of free-electron lasers, represents a hitherto unresolved challenge for theory because of the enormous number of electronic configurations and relativistic effects, which need to be taken into account. Here we report results on multiple ionization of xenon atoms by ultra-intense (about 1019 W/cm2) femtosecond X-ray pulses at photon energies from 5.5 to 8.3 keV and present a theoretical model capable of reproducing the experimental data in the entire energy range. Our analysis shows that the interplay of resonant and relativistic effects results in strongly structured charge state distributions, which reflect resonant positions of relativistically shifted electronic levels of highly charged ions created during the X-ray pulse. In conclusion, the theoretical approach described here provides a basis for accurate modeling of radiation damage in hard X-ray imaging experiments on targets with high-Z constituents.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-06745-6},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Ion time-of-flight spectra of atomic xenon. The spectra were recorded at photon energies from 5.5 keV to 8.3 keV at the same nominal pulse energy of 3.7±0.05 mJ. The lower graph magni es the region of high charge states. The arrows indicate the n-th xenon charge state, 132Xen+.

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.