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Title: An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na–ZnCl 2 Battery

Abstract

The sodium (Na)–beta-alumina battery (NBB) is one of the most promising energy storage technologies for integrating renewable energy resources into the grid. In the family of NBBs, Na-NiCl 2 has been extensively studied during the past decade because it has a lower operating temperature, greater safety, and good battery performance. One of the major issues with the Na-NiCl 2 battery is material cost, which is primarily from Ni metal in the battery cathode. As an alternative, Zn is much cheaper than Ni, and replacing Ni with Zn in the cathode can significantly reduce the cost. In this work, we investigate the performance and reaction mechanism for a Na-ZnCl 2 battery at 190°C. Two-step reversible reactions are identified. During the first step of charging, NaCl reacts with Zn to produce a ribbon-type Na 2ZnCl 4 layer. This layer is formed at the NaCl-Zn interface rather than covering the surface of the Zn particles, which lead to an excellent cell rate capability. During the second step, the produced Na 2ZnCl 4 is gradually consumed to form ZnCl 2 on the surface of Zn particles. The formed ZnCl 2 covers most of the surface area of the Zn particles, and shows a limitedmore » rate capability compared to that of the first step. We conclude that this reduced performance of the second step is due to the passivation of Zn particles by ZnCl 2, which blocks the electron pathway of the NaCl-Zn cathodes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Pohang (South Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1482428
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1491731
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-137277
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-1343
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; 70247
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Omega
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-1343
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; Batteries; Diffraction; Electric properties; Microstructure; Phase

Citation Formats

Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeffery F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na–ZnCl2 Battery. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acsomega.8b02112.
Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeffery F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., & Li, Guosheng. An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na–ZnCl2 Battery. United States. doi:10.1021/acsomega.8b02112.
Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeffery F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Fri . "An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na–ZnCl2 Battery". United States. doi:10.1021/acsomega.8b02112.
@article{osti_1482428,
title = {An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na–ZnCl2 Battery},
author = {Lu, Xiaochuan and Chang, Hee Jung and Bonnett, Jeffery F. and Canfield, Nathan L. and Jung, Keeyoung and Sprenkle, Vincent L. and Li, Guosheng},
abstractNote = {The sodium (Na)–beta-alumina battery (NBB) is one of the most promising energy storage technologies for integrating renewable energy resources into the grid. In the family of NBBs, Na-NiCl2 has been extensively studied during the past decade because it has a lower operating temperature, greater safety, and good battery performance. One of the major issues with the Na-NiCl2 battery is material cost, which is primarily from Ni metal in the battery cathode. As an alternative, Zn is much cheaper than Ni, and replacing Ni with Zn in the cathode can significantly reduce the cost. In this work, we investigate the performance and reaction mechanism for a Na-ZnCl2 battery at 190°C. Two-step reversible reactions are identified. During the first step of charging, NaCl reacts with Zn to produce a ribbon-type Na2ZnCl4 layer. This layer is formed at the NaCl-Zn interface rather than covering the surface of the Zn particles, which lead to an excellent cell rate capability. During the second step, the produced Na2ZnCl4 is gradually consumed to form ZnCl2 on the surface of Zn particles. The formed ZnCl2 covers most of the surface area of the Zn particles, and shows a limited rate capability compared to that of the first step. We conclude that this reduced performance of the second step is due to the passivation of Zn particles by ZnCl2, which blocks the electron pathway of the NaCl-Zn cathodes.},
doi = {10.1021/acsomega.8b02112},
journal = {ACS Omega},
issn = {2470-1343},
number = 11,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acsomega.8b02112

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