# RELATIVISTIC MODELING CAPABILITIES IN PERSEUS EXTENDED MHD SIMULATION CODE FOR HED PLASMAS

## Abstract

This project is submitted in response to DE-FOA-0001153, and will be carried out by Dr. Charles Seyler and Dr. Nathaniel Hamlin as post doc under the direction of Professor Seyler. The objectives are to enable PERSEUS to self-consistently model relativistic high-energy-density (HED) laboratory and astrophysical phenomena. Electrons and ions in a plasma are generally modeled either as fluids using a two-fluid code, like PERSEUS, or as particles using a Particle-In- Cell (PIC) code. Nonrelativistic PERSEUS solves the two-fluid equations, formulated in terms of a generalized Ohm’s law (GOL), so as to model about nine orders of magnitude in density variation using a local semi-implicit method. Relativistic PERSEUS preserves this structure and therefore retains these advantageous properties, enabling it to model a broader range of relativistic HED phenomena than previous codes. We have also overcome a major technical challenge associated with solving a relativistic system of equations relating conserved quantities (momentum, energy, etc.) to primitive variables (density, velocity, and pressure). We have thus far developed a relativistic version of PERSEUS and demonstrated that it recovers expected nonrelativistic results. We are currently using relativistic PERSEUS to model two HED phenomena, namely laser-plasma interactions and X-pinches, both of which show spectroscopic evidence ofmore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Cornell University

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1482335

- Report Number(s):
- DE-SC0014341

- DOE Contract Number:
- SC0014341

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Relativistic plasma, high-energy density, numerical simulation

### Citation Formats

```
Seyler, Charles E.
```*RELATIVISTIC MODELING CAPABILITIES IN PERSEUS EXTENDED MHD SIMULATION CODE FOR HED PLASMAS*. United States: N. p., 2018.
Web. doi:10.2172/1482335.

```
Seyler, Charles E.
```*RELATIVISTIC MODELING CAPABILITIES IN PERSEUS EXTENDED MHD SIMULATION CODE FOR HED PLASMAS*. United States. doi:10.2172/1482335.

```
Seyler, Charles E. Fri .
"RELATIVISTIC MODELING CAPABILITIES IN PERSEUS EXTENDED MHD SIMULATION CODE FOR HED PLASMAS". United States. doi:10.2172/1482335. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1482335.
```

```
@article{osti_1482335,
```

title = {RELATIVISTIC MODELING CAPABILITIES IN PERSEUS EXTENDED MHD SIMULATION CODE FOR HED PLASMAS},

author = {Seyler, Charles E.},

abstractNote = {This project is submitted in response to DE-FOA-0001153, and will be carried out by Dr. Charles Seyler and Dr. Nathaniel Hamlin as post doc under the direction of Professor Seyler. The objectives are to enable PERSEUS to self-consistently model relativistic high-energy-density (HED) laboratory and astrophysical phenomena. Electrons and ions in a plasma are generally modeled either as fluids using a two-fluid code, like PERSEUS, or as particles using a Particle-In- Cell (PIC) code. Nonrelativistic PERSEUS solves the two-fluid equations, formulated in terms of a generalized Ohm’s law (GOL), so as to model about nine orders of magnitude in density variation using a local semi-implicit method. Relativistic PERSEUS preserves this structure and therefore retains these advantageous properties, enabling it to model a broader range of relativistic HED phenomena than previous codes. We have also overcome a major technical challenge associated with solving a relativistic system of equations relating conserved quantities (momentum, energy, etc.) to primitive variables (density, velocity, and pressure). We have thus far developed a relativistic version of PERSEUS and demonstrated that it recovers expected nonrelativistic results. We are currently using relativistic PERSEUS to model two HED phenomena, namely laser-plasma interactions and X-pinches, both of which show spectroscopic evidence of relativistic electrons. In an X-pinch, a section of wire carrying sufficiently large current forms a plasma column that pinches down to a point-like source, generating X-rays for use in radiographic imaging. Laser-plasma interactions have been simulated using PIC codes, and we use their results as a benchmark for comparison. However, neither PIC codes nor existing two-fluid schemes can simulate X-pinches, due to the broad range of densities which have thus far made such a simulation computationally prohibitive. In both laser-plasma interaction and Xpinch simulations, we have observed relativistic phenomena that PERSEUS could not previously model. This includes relativistic channeling of a laser into an over-dense deuterium gas (i.e. induced transparency), consistent with PIC simulation results, along with energetic electrons and ions following an X-pinch and likely accompanied by strong X-ray emission, consistent with experimental observations of energetic X-rays. This proposal includes our latest simulation results. We will improve computational efficiency with techniques that allow the use of a less refined numerical grid. This will enable extensions to three-dimensional geometries. We will improve modeling of laser-plasma interactions and X-pinches, including radiative transport processes, in order to improve comparisons with PIC simulations and experimental diagnostics. We will also model power loss through electrode surface plasmas in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). We will model relativistic astrophysical phenomena in both astrophysical and HED regimes, which could shed light on the validity of laboratory astrophysics for certain problems. These phenomena are currently modeled using PIC codes and existing relativistic two-fluid codes, neither of which can model the range of length scales of which relativistic PERSEUS is capable. There is strong potential for this project to have a broad impact on both the astrophysical and laboratory plasma communities. In the laboratory community, our work is applicable to those concerned with laser-plasma interactions such as laser-driven fusion, and those in the dense Z pinch community concerned with X-pinches and electrode surface plasmas. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of hard (i.e. high-energy) X-ray generation will likely make important contributions toward the use of X-pinches for radiography through the harnessing or mitigation of hard X-rays, depending on the application. The modeling of electrode surface plasmas, including vacuum electron flow, will improve our understanding of power loss to various loads.},

doi = {10.2172/1482335},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2018},

month = {11}

}