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Title: NORM waste technologies used in decontamination and waste handling: An overview

Abstract

The presence of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in crude oil and natural gas has been recognized since the 1930s. NORM forms when small quantities of radium and uranium precipitate with barium and calcium as carbonates or sulfates. NORM has been found in virtually every oil producing region in the United States, from Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay to the deep, offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a build-up of low level radiation in oil field equipment. The radium leaches from mineral deposits into adjacent water, and is then pumped to the surface with oil. NORM contamination can be a problem wherever scale precipitated in oil production operations can accumulate. The most prevalent radioactive contamination is found in the South and along the Gulf Coast regions, where radium concentrations in the water are much higher than in other regions. The environmental as well as health and safety issues attendant to NORM in the oil and gas industry are receiving increased attention from both the public and private sectors. Although regulation of NORM in the United States is only emerging at this time, there appears to be a groundswell of state NORM regulations on the horizon. As a result of themore » enhanced regulatory climate and the proactive environmental mindset of the oil and gas industry, several major and independent oil and gas companies are in the process of cleanup and ultimate disposal of NORM.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
148089
Report Number(s):
CONF-950152-
TRN: 96:005817
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Petro-Safe `95 conference and exhibition, Houston, TX (United States), 31 Jan - 2 Feb 1995; Other Information: PBD: 1995; Related Information: Is Part Of Petro-safe `95: 6. Annual environmental, safety and health conference and exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Book 1; PB: 590 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; PETROLEUM INDUSTRY; WASTE MANAGEMENT; NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY; URANIUM; RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT; RADIUM; SOILS; NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

Citation Formats

Hoover, J, and Hebert, M. NORM waste technologies used in decontamination and waste handling: An overview. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Hoover, J, & Hebert, M. NORM waste technologies used in decontamination and waste handling: An overview. United States.
Hoover, J, and Hebert, M. Sun . "NORM waste technologies used in decontamination and waste handling: An overview". United States.
@article{osti_148089,
title = {NORM waste technologies used in decontamination and waste handling: An overview},
author = {Hoover, J and Hebert, M},
abstractNote = {The presence of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in crude oil and natural gas has been recognized since the 1930s. NORM forms when small quantities of radium and uranium precipitate with barium and calcium as carbonates or sulfates. NORM has been found in virtually every oil producing region in the United States, from Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay to the deep, offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a build-up of low level radiation in oil field equipment. The radium leaches from mineral deposits into adjacent water, and is then pumped to the surface with oil. NORM contamination can be a problem wherever scale precipitated in oil production operations can accumulate. The most prevalent radioactive contamination is found in the South and along the Gulf Coast regions, where radium concentrations in the water are much higher than in other regions. The environmental as well as health and safety issues attendant to NORM in the oil and gas industry are receiving increased attention from both the public and private sectors. Although regulation of NORM in the United States is only emerging at this time, there appears to be a groundswell of state NORM regulations on the horizon. As a result of the enhanced regulatory climate and the proactive environmental mindset of the oil and gas industry, several major and independent oil and gas companies are in the process of cleanup and ultimate disposal of NORM.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/148089}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {12}
}

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